7 best submarines of World War II

22-11-2017, 20:31
Submarines dictate the rules in a naval war and make everyone obediently follow the established order. Those stubborn people who risk neglecting the rules of the game will face a quick and painful death in the cold water, in the midst of debris and oil stains. Boats, regardless of the flag, remain the most dangerous fighting vehicles capable of crushing any enemy. I bring to your attention a short story about the seven most successful projects of the submarines of the war years.
Type T boats (Triton-class), UK
7 best submarines of World War II
The number of built submarines - 53.
Surface displacement - 1290 tons; underwater - 1,560 tons.
The crew - 59 ... 61 people.
The working depth is 90 m (riveted body), 106 m (welded body).
Full speed in surface position - 15.5 knots; in the underwater - 9 knots.
The fuel capacity of 131 tons provided a cruising range of 8000 miles above the surface.
Armament:
- 11 torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber (on boats of sub series II and III), ammunition - 17 torpedoes;
- 1 x 102 mm universal weapon, 1 x 20 mm anti-aircraft "Oerlikon".
British underwater Terminator, capable of "knocking dope" out of the head of any enemy with the help of a nasal 8-torpedo salvo. The T-type boats were not equal in destructive power among all submarines of the WWII period - this explains their fierce appearance with a fancy nasal superstructure, which housed additional torpedo tubes.
The notorious British conservatism is in the past - the British were among the first to equip their boats with ASDIC sonars. Alas, in spite of its powerful armament and modern means of detection, the T-type open-sea boats did not become the most effective among the Second World War British submarines. Nevertheless, they went through an exciting combat path and achieved a number of remarkable victories. "Tritons" were actively used in the Atlantic, in the Mediterranean, smashed Japanese communications in the Pacific Ocean, were noted several times in the cold waters of the Arctic.
In August 1941, the submarines "Taigris" and "Trident" arrived in Murmansk. British submariners demonstrated a master class to their Soviet colleagues: in two campaigns 4 enemy ships were sunk, including “Bayya Laura” and “Donau II” with thousands of soldiers of the 6th Mountain Division.Thus, the sailors prevented the third German offensive on Murmansk.
Other famous T-type trophies include the German light cruiser Karlsruhe and the Japanese heavy cruiser Ashigara. The samurai were “lucky” to get acquainted with the full 8-torpedo salvo of the submarine “Trencher” - having received 4 torpedoes in the side (+ one more of the aft TA), the cruiser quickly overturned and sank.
After the war, powerful and accomplished "Tritons" had been in service with the Royal Navy for a quarter of a century.
It is noteworthy that three boats of this type were acquired by Israel in the late 1960s - one of them, INS Dakar (formerly HMS Totem), died in 1968 in the Mediterranean under unexplained circumstances.
Boats of the type "Cruising" series XIV, Soviet Union
7 best submarines of World War II
The number of built submarines - 11.
Surface displacement - 1500 tons; underwater - 2100 tons.
The crew - 62 ... 65 people.
The working depth is 80 m, the maximum depth is 100 m.
Full speed in surface position - 22.5 knots .; in underwater - 10 knots.
Navigation range on the surface 16,500 miles (9 knots.)
Submerged navigation range - 175 miles (3 knots.)
Armament:
- 10 torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber, ammunition - 24 torpedoes;
- 2 x 100 mm universal guns, 2 x 45 mm anti-aircraft semi-automatic;
- up to 20 min barrage.
... On December 3, 1941, the German hunters UJ-1708, UJ-1416 and UJ-1403 bombed a Soviet boat that attempted to attack a convoy from Bustad-sund.
- Hans, do you hear this thing?
- Nein. After a series of explosions, the Russians lay to the bottom — I spotted three blows to the ground ...
“Can you tell where they are now?”
- Donnervetter! They are purged. Surely decided to surface and surrender.
German sailors made a mistake. From the depths of the sea rose MONSTR - cruising submarine K-3 series XIV, which brought down on the enemy a squall of artillery fire. From the fifth salvo, the Soviet sailors managed to sink U-1708. The second hunter, having received two direct hits, began to smoke and turned aside - his 20 mm anti-aircraft guns could not compete with the "weaves" of the secular submarine cruiser. Spreading Germans like puppies, the K-3 quickly disappeared over the horizon at a 20-node turn.
Soviet "Katyusha" was a phenomenal boat for its time. Welded hull, powerful artillery and mine-torpedo armament, powerful diesels (2 x 4200 hp!), High surface speed of 22-23 knots. Huge autonomy for fuel reserves. Remote control valves ballast tanks.Radio station capable of transmitting signals from the Baltic to the Far East. Exceptional level of comfort: shower cabins, refrigerated tanks, two seawater desalination plants, electric galley ... Two boats (K-3 and K-22) were equipped with ASDIC lend-lease sonars.
But, oddly enough, neither high performance nor powerful weapons made the Katyusha an effective weapon - in addition to the dark history with the K-21 attack on the Tirpitz, during the war years only 5 successful torpedo attacks and 27 thousand br reg. tons of tonnage drowned. Most of the victories were gained with the help of mines. Moreover, their own losses amounted to five cruising boats.
The reasons for the failures lie in the tactics of the "Katyusha" - the powerful submarine cruisers created for the expanses of the Pacific Ocean, had to "trample" in the shallow Baltic "puddle". During operations at depths of 30-40 meters, a huge 97-meter boat could have hit its nose on the ground, while its food was still stuck on the surface. Slightly easier was for the North Sea seamen — as experience has shown, the effectiveness of the Katyush combat use was complicated by the weak training of personnel and the lack of initiative of the command.
It's a pity. These boats were calculated for more.
"Baby", the Soviet Union
7 best submarines of World War II
Series VI and VI-bis - built 50.
Series XII - built 46.
Series XV - built 57 (4 took part in the hostilities).
TTX boats type M series XII:
Surface displacement - 206 tons; scuba - 258 tons.
Autonomy - 10 days.
The working depth is 50 m, the maximum depth is 60 m.
Full speed in surface position - 14 knots .; in underwater - 8 knots.
Navigation range on the surface - 3380 miles (8.6 knots).
Submerged sailing range is 108 miles (3 knots).
Armament:
- 2 torpedo tubes of caliber 533 mm, ammunition - 2 torpedoes;
- 1 x 45 mm anti-aircraft semi-automatic.
The mini-submarine project for the rapid strengthening of the Pacific Fleet - the main feature of type M boats was the ability to transport by rail in fully assembled form.
In pursuit of compactness, many had to be sacrificed - the service at the “Little” turned into an exhausting and dangerous event. Severe living conditions, strong “bumpiness” - waves mercilessly threw a 200-ton “float” at the risk of breaking it into pieces. Shallow depth of immersion and weak weapon. But the main concern of the sailors was the reliability of the submarine - one shaft, one diesel engine, one electric motor - the tiny “Baby” did not leave chances to the careless crew, the slightest malfunction on board threatened to kill the submarine.
The kids quickly evolved - the performance characteristics of each new series were several times different from the previous project: improved contours, updated electrical equipment and means of detection, reduced the time of immersion, increased autonomy. The “babies” of the XV series did not resemble their predecessors of the VI and XII series in any way: the one-and-a-half structure - the ballast tanks were moved out of the strong hull; The power plant received a standard two-shaft layout with two diesel engines and underwater electric motors. The number of torpedo tubes has increased to four. Alas, the series XV appeared too late - the main burden of the war was borne on itself by the “Baby” VI and XII series.
Despite their modest size and only 2 torpedoes on board, the tiny fish were simply terrifying “voraciousness”: during the years of World War II, Soviet type M submarines sank 61 enemy ships with a total tonnage of 135,500 brts, destroyed 10 warships, and also damaged 8 transports.
The babies, originally intended only for operations in the coastal zone, have learned how to effectively fight in the open sea areas.They, along with larger boats, cut enemy communications, patrolled at the exits of enemy bases and fjords, deftly overcame anti-submarine barriers and undermined transports right at piers inside protected enemy harbors. It is amazing how the Red Navy men were able to fight on these flimsy little ships! But they fought. And they won!
The “Medium” type boats of the IX-bis series, Soviet Union
7 best submarines of World War II
The number of built submarines - 41.
Surface displacement - 840 tons; scuba - 1070 tons.
The crew - 36 ... 46 people.
The working depth is 80 m, the maximum depth is 100 m.
Full speed in surface position - 19.5 knots; submerged - 8.8 knots.
Sailing distance on the surface position of 8000 miles (10 knots).
The submerged navigation distance is 148 miles (3 knots).
“Six torpedo tubes and the same amount of spare torpedoes on convenient shelves for reloading. Two guns with a large ammunition, machine guns, blasting ... In short, there is something to fight. And the 20-knot surface speed! It allows you to overtake almost any convoy and attack it again. The technique is good ... "
- opinion of the commander of the C-56, Hero of the Soviet Union G.I. Shchedrin
"Eski" differed rational layout and balanced design, powerful weapons, excellent handling and seaworthiness. Initially, the German project of the company "Deshimag", finalized under the Soviet requirements. But do not rush to clap and remember the “Mistral”. After the start of serial construction of the IX series in the Soviet shipyards, the German project was revised to fully switch to Soviet equipment: 1D diesel engines, weapons, radio stations, a direction finder, a gyrocompass ... - in the boats that received the designation "IX-bis series" bolts of foreign production!
The problems of combat use of the “Medium” type boats, in general, were similar to cruiser K-type boats — locked in shallow water infested with mines; they were never able to realize their high combat qualities. Things were much better in the Northern Fleet - during the war years, the S-56 submarine commanded by G.I. Shchedrin made the transition through the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, moving from Vladivostok to Polar, later becoming the most productive boat of the Soviet Navy.
No less a fantastic story connected with the "bombshell" C-101 - during the war years more than 1000 depth charges were dropped on the boat by the Germans and allies, but every time the C-101 returned safely to Polar.
Finally, it was at the C-13 that Alexander Marinesko achieved his famous victories.
Gato type boats, USA
7 best submarines of World War II
The number of built submarines - 77.
Surface displacement - 1525 tons; underwater - 2420 tons.
Crew - 60 people.
The working depth is 90 m.
Full speed in surface position - 21 knots .; underwater - 9 knots.
The float range on the surface is 11,000 miles (10 knots).
The submerged sailing range is 96 miles (2 knots).
Armament:
- 10 torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber, ammunition - 24 torpedoes;
- 1 x 76 mm universal gun, 1 x 40 mm anti-aircraft gun Bofors, 1 x 20 mm Oerlikon;
- one of the boats - USS Barb was equipped with a multiple rocket launcher to fire the coast.
Ocean submarine cruisers of the “Gatou” type appeared at the height of the war in the Pacific and became one of the most effective instruments of the US Navy. They tightly blocked all strategic straits and approaches to the atolls, cut all supply lines, leaving the Japanese garrisons without reinforcements, and the Japanese industry - without raw materials and oil. In battles with the “Gatou”, the Imperial fleet lost two heavy aircraft carriers, lost four cruisers and a damn dozen destroyers.
High speed, slaughter torpedo weapons, the most modern electronic means of detecting the enemy - radar, direction finder, sonar. Sailing range, providing combat patrols off the coast of Japan when operating from a base in Hawaii. Increased comfort on board. But the main thing is the excellent training of the crews and the weakness of the Japanese anti-submarine weapons. As a result, the “Gatou” mercilessly cracked down everything - it was they who brought victory from the blue depths of the sea to the Pacific.
... One of the main achievements of the “Gatou” boats, which changed the whole world, is the event of September 2, 1944. On that day, the Finbek submarine spotted a distress signal from a falling plane and, after many hours of searching, found in the ocean frightened and already desperate pilot . Saved was one George Herbert Bush.
Electrobots type XXI, Germany
7 best submarines of World War II
By April 1945, the Germans managed to launch 118 submarines of the XXI series. However, only two of them were able to achieve operational readiness and go to sea in the last days of the war.
Surface displacement - 1620 tons; underwater - 1820 tons.
Crew - 57 people.
The working depth is 135 m, the maximum depth is 200+ meters.
Full speed in surface position - 15.6 knots., In a submerged position - 17 knots.
Cruising range on the surface is 15,500 miles (10 knots).
The submerged sailing range is 340 miles (5 knots).
Armament:
- 6 torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber, ammunition - 17 torpedoes;
- 2 Flak anti-aircraft guns of 20 mm caliber.
Our allies were very fortunate that all the forces of Germany were thrown onto the Eastern Front - the Fritz did not have enough resources to release a flock of fantastic "Electric Dogs" into the sea. Appear they a year earlier - and that's all, kaput! Another change in the battle for the Atlantic.
The Germans were the first to guess: everything that shipbuilders of other countries are proud of - large ammunition, powerful artillery, high surface speed of 20+ knots - is of little importance. The key parameters determining the combat effectiveness of a submarine are its speed and power reserve in a submerged position.
Unlike its peers, "Eletrobot" was focused on the constant presence under water: the most streamlined corps without heavy artillery, fences and platforms - all for the sake of minimizing underwater resistance. Snorkel, six groups of batteries (3 times more than conventional boats!), Powerful electric. engines full speed, quiet and economical electric. sneak engines.
The Germans counted everything - the whole campaign "Electrobot" was moving at a periscope depth under the RDP, remaining difficult to detect for the enemy anti-submarine weapons. At great depths, his advantage became even more shocking: 2-3 times more power reserve, at twice the speed than any of the submarines of the war years! High stealth and impressive submarine skills, self-guided torpedoes, a set of the most advanced means of detection ... "Electrobots" opened a new milestone in the history of the submarine fleet, defining the vector of development of submarines in the postwar years.
The allies were not ready for a meeting with a similar threat - as shown by the post-war tests, the Electrobot were several times longer in range of mutual sonar detection by the American and British destroyers guarding the convoys.
Type VII boats, Germany
7 best submarines of World War II
The number of built submarines - 703.
Surface displacement - 769 tons; scuba - 871 tons.
Crew - 45 people.
Working depth of immersion - 100 m, limit - 220 meters
Full speed in surface position - 17.7 knots .; submerged - 7.6 knots.
Navigation range in surface position is 8,500 miles (10 knots).
The submerged sailing range is 80 miles (4 knots).
Armament:
- 5 torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber, ammunition - 14 torpedoes;
- 1 x 88 mm universal gun (until 1942), eight variants of superstructures with 20 and 37 mm anti-aircraft installations.
The most effective warships from all who have ever plied the oceans.
Relatively simple, cheap, massive, but at the same time perfectly armed and lethal means for total underwater terror.
703 submarines. 10 MILLION tons of submerged tonnage! Battleships, cruisers, aircraft carriers, destroyers, corvettes and enemy submarines, oil tankers, transports with airplanes, tanks, cars, rubber, ore, machine tools, ammunition, uniforms and food ... Damage from the actions of German submariners exceeded all reasonable limits - if not the inexhaustible industrial potential of the United States, able to compensate for any losses of the Allies, the German U-bots had every chance to “strangle” the UK and change the course of world history.
Often, the success of the "sevens" is associated with the "prosperous time" of 1939-41. - ostensibly with the appearance of the allies of the convoy system and Asdik sonars, the success of the German submariners ended.A completely populist statement based on a misinterpretation of “prosperous times”.
The alignment was simple: at the beginning of the war, when every German submarine had one anti-submarine ship of the Allies, the “sevens” felt invincible masters of the Atlantic. It was then that the legendary aces appeared, sinking 40 enemy ships. The Germans were already holding the victory in their hands, when the Allies suddenly put up 10 anti-submarine ships and 10 airplanes per each operating Kriegsmarine boat!
Since the spring of 1943, the Yankees and the British began methodically to overthrow the Kriegsmarine with anti-submarine technology and soon achieved an excellent loss ratio of 1: 1. So they fought until the end of the war.

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