Dermatitis on the face: types, causes, symptoms and treatment
and on other parts of the body) - this is inflammation of the skin of various origin. Such diseases are accompanied by rashes in the form of red spots. This not only spoils the appearance of a person, but also delivers physical discomfort due to severe painful itching. Most often, children with dermatitis suffer, but often this pathology is also found in adults. Disease can be dangerous to health. Because of the unbearable itching, a person combs the skin, which can cause serious bacterial complications. Therefore, treatment of dermatitis should begin as early as possible.
Causes of illness
Most often, dermatitis appears in those adults who suffered from this disease in childhood. There are several forms of the disease, each of which has its own etiology.
The seborrheic form of dermatitis is associated with the activation of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms on the epidermis. Such microflora becomes pathogenic only when immunity falls.All the reasons that cause the weakening of the body's defenses can trigger the development of seborrheic dermatitis. These include stress, malnutrition, avitaminosis, overwork. Usually seborrheic dermatitis occurs on oily skin. Often endocrine diseases lead to increased secretion of the sebaceous glands.
When the atopic form of the body begins to form antibodies, which cause inflammation of the epidermis. Currently, the etiology of this form of dermatitis on the face has not been precisely established. The causes of the disease are most likely associated with a hereditary factor.
Allergic and contact dermatitis have a common etiology. They occur after contact with irritants and allergens.
If the rash is found only around the mouth, then doctors talk about oral dermatitis on the face. The causes of this disease are associated with hormonal disorders and pathologies of the stomach and intestines. Oral dermatitis is more often observed during pregnancy, menopause, as well as during treatment with hormonal drugs.
In addition to the above reasons, the following factors may trigger the disease:
- rare outdoor stay;
- alcohol abuse;
- thyroid disease;
- worm infestation;
- other skin pathologies, accompanied by a violation of the sebaceous glands.
Next will be discussed in more detail all forms of dermatitis on the face.
Varieties and stages of pathology
As already mentioned, dermatitis can occur in a seborrheic, atopic, allergic, contact, and oral form. Let us dwell in more detail on the pathogenesis of each type of disease:
- Seborrheic dermatitis on the face in adults and children is often the result of hyperfunction of the sebaceous glands. With this form of pathology, the patient's skin is covered with acne and acne, and dandruff can be noticed in the hair. However, the occurrence of the disease and with excessively dry skin.
- Atopic dermatitis is the most complex form of the disease. Its appearance is associated with heredity and autoimmune processes. This type of inflammation of the epidermis is difficult to treat.
- Contact dermatitis occurs due to contact of the skin with the allergen. The defeat of the epidermis appears at the site of contact with the irritant.
- Allergic dermatitis also occurs due to the influence of a stimulus. However, in this case, the allergen does not affect the skin, but enters the body. Inflammation of the epidermis is one of the symptoms of a common allergic reaction.
- Oral dermatitis on the face was named for the localization of lesions. Spots form only around the mouth, other skin areas remain clean.
The disease develops quite quickly. During the pathology can be divided into several stages:
- Spicy The appearance of red spots, and bubble eruptions. The epidermis becomes swollen. Patients complain of a burning sensation in the affected areas.
- Subacute. Bubbles with liquid break through, crusts form in their place. The patient complains of severe itching.
- Chronic. The disease occurs with seasonal exacerbations, which are replaced by remissions.
At the chronic stage, it is rather difficult to get rid of dermatitis on the face. Long-term combination therapy is needed, including the use of medications, dieting, the use of special creams. It is easiest to treat dermatitis at the beginning of the disease in the acute stage.
Symptomatology of seborrheic form
This form of the disease usually begins with a lesion of the scalp. Hair becomes excessively greasy or excessively dry, dandruff appears in them. Damage to the scalp has been noted for a long time. And only then do symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis appear on the face. The disease is associated with increased activity of the fungus Pitirosporum ovale. This microorganism becomes pathogenic when immunity falls.
There is a dry and oily variety of the disease. In the first case, peeling and itching of the skin are noted. With an excess of fat on the epidermis, red inflamed ulcers appear. Papules are formed over the entire surface of the face. The occurrence of numerous rosacea on thinned skin is a sign of the advanced form of seborrheic dermatitis on the face. Photos of symptoms of epidermis lesions can be seen below.
This form of the disease is very prone to chronic course. Especially often the pathology becomes protracted in the presence of concomitant endocrine diseases. Recurrences of skin inflammation occur at the slightest decrease in immunity. It is necessary to start treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face as soon as possible. Photos of the chronic manifestations of the disease can be seen below.
The clinical picture of the allergic and contact forms
Allergic dermatitis most often occurs after the irritant enters the body with food. The cause of the pathology can also be pollen or animal hair. This form of the disease begins with bright red spots on the skin. Then the epidermis swells and becomes covered with small bubbles with liquid. A rash on the skin is accompanied by severe itching, the patient has a runny nose, sneezing, headache, tearing. Such a reaction occurs approximately 4 to 5 days after contact with the allergen. Scars and scars remain in place of the healing rash.
The contact form of dermatitis on the face appears the same as allergic. The disease occurs when the epidermis is in contact with irritating substances: chemicals, cosmetics, drugs for local use. Skin lesions are noted only in areas of contact with the allergen.
Manifestations of oral form
This form of the disease is most often noted at the age of 20 to 30 years. The rash is localized around the mouth. They have the appearance of red scaly spots. Patients complain of burning and itching in the affected areas.Spots may become lighter or darker depending on weather conditions. This feature is the hallmark of oral dermatitis on the face. Photos of rashes can be seen below.
Signs of atopic form
This type of disease most often affects young children. It is hereditary. Atopic dermatitis on the face of a child is observed in 90% of cases if the father and mother are allergic. If one of the parents suffers from allergic reactions, then the probability of developing pathology in children is 60%.
The atopic form of the disease in children is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- a rash in the form of red spots on the cheeks;
- the appearance of weeping areas on the epidermis;
- the formation of crusts in place of the rash.
In some children, the disease resolves itself by 4–5 years. However, in many cases, the disease can become chronic and manifest itself at an older age.
Atopic dermatitis on the face in adults is called eczema. The disease is accompanied by the appearance of a bubble rash, severe intolerable itching, peeling of the skin, burning sensation.The eyebrow hairs break off and the folds around the eyes become deeper. than usual. Eczema is not a contagious and dangerous disease. But persistent itching disrupts sleep and causes severe discomfort to the patient.
Dermatitis cannot be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one. The danger of such skin lesions is possible complications. Running forms of dermatitis can lead to the following consequences:
- the accession of a bacterial infection;
- tissue necrosis;
- scars and scars at the eruption site;
- the formation of pigment spots.
In no case can not engage in self-dermatitis. From this disease can not get rid of only one popular recipes. Especially dangerous is the independent use of medical drugs, such as hormonal ointments. These medicines should be prescribed only by a doctor, as they have many side effects.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease involved a dermatologist. It is possible to identify the disease during the examination and collection of anamnesis according to the following external signs:
- Place of rash.In the case of an allergic form, the affected areas are located all over the face, in the case of oral form, they are localized around the mouth, and in the case of seborrhea, the eyebrows are affected.
- The appearance of the affected areas. Allergic dermatitis is accompanied by swelling of the skin, oral - peeling of spots, and seborrheic - the formation of scales.
- The presence of folds in the eyes and thinning of the skin (with atopic form).
If an allergic nature of the disease is suspected, a complete blood count, skin tests for allergens, and a stool test for helminth eggs are prescribed. In the seborrheic form, a sample is taken from the epidermis for the presence of a fungal infection.
How to treat dermatitis on the face? This disease is subject to complex therapy with a variety of drugs. The choice of treatment method depends on the form of pathology.
If dermatitis is allergic in origin, antihistamine medications are required. They reduce itching, swelling and inflammation. It is better to use third-generation drugs that do not have a sedative effect and do not cause drowsiness. These include:
For severe itching, corticosteroid hormones are prescribed:
These drugs effectively affect the inflammation and quickly relieve swelling and itching. It should be remembered that hormonal drugs have many side effects. In addition, some patients may have contraindications for taking corticosteroids. Therefore, the course of hormone treatment should be under the supervision of a physician.
How to treat dermatitis on the face, if atopic form is diagnosed? This type of disease is difficult to treat. In this case, treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids complement the prescription of antibiotics, which reduce acute inflammation:
It is important to remember that in the early days of antibiotic therapy, the symptoms of dermatitis may increase. But after 10 - 14 days, a significant improvement in the condition of the epidermis occurs.
Often, dermatitis is associated with impaired intestinal microflora. Therefore, in the treatment of used prebiotics: "Hilak Forte", "Lysozyme", "Atsipol".
In addition to oral medications, it is necessary to prescribe local remedies for the treatment of dermatitis on the face.Ointments and creams are divided into non-hormonal and hormonal.
For a relatively mild course of the disease, hormone-free products are used. They have a minimum of side effects and are well tolerated. These drugs include the following ointments and creams:
For more severe forms of dermatitis, topical corticosteroid hormones are prescribed:
These drugs are suitable for the treatment of all types of dermatitis. However, they have many side effects and contraindications. They are not recommended for the treatment of young children. pregnant women. as well as patients with adrenal gland diseases.
During the treatment of dermatitis, you must follow a diet. First of all, you need to completely eliminate the use of sweets: chocolate, sweets, cakes and pastries, as well as fruit carbonated water. Such products enhance fermentation in the digestive tract. As a result, the nutrients are poorly absorbed and an allergic reaction begins on the skin.
In addition to sweet foods, you should avoid eating the following foods:
- fatty meats and fish;
- smoked meat;
- spicy food;
- pickles and canned food;
- sweet exotic fruits;
- fried food;
- alcoholic beverages.
During the exacerbation of the disease should be steamed or boiled foods. In salads should not put sour cream or mayonnaise, it is better to use olive oil. Vegetable dishes and cereals from cereals are very useful, they help to enrich the body with vitamins and minerals.
The prognosis of the disease is usually favorable. With timely and proper therapy, you can completely get rid of dermatitis. The atopic form of pathology is somewhat more difficult to treat. In this case, you need to tune in to a long-term complex therapy.
If untreated, the disease can become chronic. Spots can transform into tubercles, and inflammation can spread to healthy areas of the skin. It is much more difficult to treat such neglected forms of pathology.
To prevent dermatitis, it is necessary to eliminate contact with irritating substances and allergens. It is important to prevent excessive fat or dryness of the epidermis, and regularly use cosmetics for your skin type.A major role in the prevention of seborrheic dermatitis is played by the maintenance of the endocrine system in a normal state.
It is very important to eat right and avoid excessive consumption of sweet, smoked, spicy foods, as well as alcohol. It must be remembered that the good condition of the skin depends largely on the proper functioning of the digestive tract. It is necessary to monitor the regular bowel movement and avoid constipation. It is especially important to follow such rules for people with poor heredity for allergies and eczema. This will help minimize the risk of disease.