Far Eastern Republic: education, activities and history
The history of the Far Eastern Republic is ambiguous. Until now, around her there is a lot of controversy among researchers. Once the Decembrists, who were massively exiled to Siberia in the thirties of the nineteenth century, dreamed of creating an independent state in the territory of the Far East and Siberia. With the help of the exiled educated nobles, agriculture in the East received an impetus for development. The idea of creating a separate state re-emerged when, at the end of the 19th century, large-scale resettlement of people to the East began, and from there came a new round in the development of agriculture and industry in the region. And after the October Revolution, the topic of creating a separate state in the East became relevant again.
Causes of the appearance of the Far Eastern Republic
After the revolution that took place in 1917 and the abolition of the Russian Empire, the newly created country of the Bolsheviks was weakened and engaged in a civil war.The Asian states neighboring with Russia in the East tried, taking advantage of the situation, to snatch a piece of Russian eastern land. But the Bolsheviks were not going to lose a huge, resource-rich territory. There was a serious armed conflict in which Russia was not interested. It was necessary to make a decision that would delay time in order to solve the internal and external problems of a young country. And such a solution was found.
The history of the creation of the Far Eastern Republic
The idea of creating the Far Eastern Republic was extraordinary and complex in its execution. It consisted in the creation of an independent buffer state, and this independence was only of a formal nature.
When Kolchak was defeated in 1920, the Bolsheviks set about fulfilling their difficult task. The difficulty was the need to solve many serious issues in a short period of time. People involved in the creation of a new republic had different political views, from different social strata, with different levels of education. Therefore, to negotiate among themselves this motley company wasquite problematic.
In the city of Tomsk on January 19, it was decided to create a buffer with borders along the lines of the Angara and Oka rivers. And on March 3, Dalbyuro is created in the following composition: A. M. Krasnoshchekov, N. K. Goncharov, I. G. Kushnarev, A. A. Shiryamov, P. M. Nikiforov, S. G. Lazo.
On March 28, in Verkhneudinsk, the congress of workers of the Baikal region began work, where on April 2 a decision was taken to create a buffer in the Far East, in which the Bolsheviks, Social Revolutionaries, Social Democrats and Zemstvos shared power.
After a stormy debate on April 6, the creation of a new state was finally legalized through the adoption of the “Declaration on the establishment of an independent Far Eastern Republic”.
The government of the RSFSR officially recognized the FER government in Verkhneudinsk (now it is Ulan-Ude, the capital of Buryatia) in May 14, 1920. At that time, the Trans-Baikal, Primorsk, Kamchatka, Sakhalin Amur regions, as well as the estuary line of the Chinese Eastern Railway (China Eastern Railway) were part of the Far Eastern Republic.
In Chita in 1920, from October 28 to November 11, after the ataman Semenov was liquidated in Transbaikalia, a conference of the regional governments of the Far East was held.The result of this conference was the Declaration, according to which the entire vast territory from the Selenga River and Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean was declared an independent republic with democratic power. All the governments that existed in this territory were abolished and turned into local governments. A democratic buffer state needed to prevent aggression from Japan was created by incredible efforts. The formation of the Far Eastern Republic was completed.
DVR control system
The capital of the Far Eastern People's Republic was moved to Chita. The Constituent Assembly was elected on January 12, 1921 through direct elections. The result of this election was the following alignment of forces: of 424 deputies, 92 were communists, 183 were peasant majority groups, 44 were peasant minority groups, 14 were Mensheviks, 18 were Social Revolutionaries, 13 were Buryat-Mongolian faction, 8 were Cadets, 3 were Popular Socialists , 6 - Siberian Socialist Revolutionaries, 1 - non-partisan. In the period from April 23 to April 27, with the help of the Constitutional Commission, which introduced the draft Basic Law, the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution.
The Constitution of the FER was a Basic Law as a contract between a citizen and a state.It provided for the following: the formation of civil society and a mixed economy, the separation of powers, a multiparty system, the rule of law, the rights and freedoms of citizens. The division into estates is abolished, all citizens are equal before the law. The Constitution guaranteed the freedom of the press, speech, conscience, freedom of expression, the creation of societies and unions.
The economy of the FER was based on free enterprise, a variety of forms of ownership, the attraction of foreign capital, the creation of commercial banks and joint-stock enterprises. The Constitution enshrines state ownership of the subsoil, water, land and the planned regulation of the country's economy. An economic agreement has been concluded between the FER and the RSFSR. A monetary reform was carried out, according to which the ruble of the Far Eastern Republic was introduced on the basis of the gold standard.
The National Assembly in the Far Eastern Republic became the highest authority. Its formation took place through elections for a two-year term through a proportional representation system. Candidates were nominated by party and public organizations lists and groups of voters.According to the adopted Constitution, the following people were elected to the National Assembly: for the civilian population - 1 deputy from 15,000 voters, for military servicemen of citizens - 1 deputy from 7,500 people.
The National Assembly, whose work was carried out in sessions, in turn, elected the Government as the supreme organ of state power, which operated continuously throughout the term of office of the national assembly.
The elections of the Government were considered valid with the participation of two thirds of the deputies, and were carried out by secret ballot. Bolshevik A.M. Krasnoshchekov was elected head of government.
Council of Ministers
The Council of Ministers and a number of ministries performed executive and administrative functions. There were advisory bodies under the Council of Ministers, such as the Council of Defense of the FER and the Higher Economic Council. Ministers had the right to become members of the Government and citizens who had the right to be elected to the National Assembly. In order to solve urgent current issues, the Council of Ministers had a Presidium acting on its behalf. However, all his decisions were necessarily approved by the Council of Ministers.
Territorially, the Far Eastern Republic was divided into regions that consisted of counties, and already counties were divided into volosts.
On this basis, the Constitution provided for a system of representative local authorities (county, city, oblast, volost assemblies of commissioners, and also meetings of villages). The bodies responsible for the executive and administrative functions were the corresponding territories of the administration and departments, near the village it was a village committee. There were also social authorized officials. For example, regional government emissaries.
Counterrevolutionary coup in Vladivostok
Soviet Russia controlled the solution of all the most important questions concerning the policy of the FER. And the army of the Far Eastern Republic, which was called the People’s Revolutionary Republic, was created from the very beginning as part of the army of Soviet Russia. Japan feared an increase in the influence of the FER in Primorye, and therefore sabotaged the military coup in Vladivostok, which led to the establishment of the Provisional Amur Government, consisting of White Guards and members of non-socialist parties. In November 1921, the White Army launched an offensive.Already on December 21, White occupied Khabarovsk. On the part of the FER, not without the help of Russia, emergency measures were taken to strengthen the defensive ability of the republic. At the same time, the Social Democrats and the Social Revolutionaries were eliminated from the National Assembly. Fighting for the independence of the FER, Krasnoshchekov was urgently replaced by N. M. Matveyev, and the Minister of War was changed to V. B. Blucher. In February 1922, in February, the army of the FER, with the help of partisan detachments, launched a counter-attack, defeated the White Guards. February 14, after the victory at the station Volochaevka, the army of Blucher occupied Khabarovsk.
The position of Soviet Russia and the Far Eastern Republic by the end of 1922 was greatly strengthened, and Japan was ignored at a conference in Washington. In addition, the bulk of the Japanese have already begun to show discontent regarding the lingering intervention in the Far East. As a result, in October 1922, the Japanese government withdraws its troops from the coastal lands they occupied. In 1922, on October 25, the troops of the people's revolutionary revolutionary army of the FER entered Vladivostok.
Soon workers in the Far Eastern Republic held rallies demanding unification with Soviet Russia.The National Assembly of the second convocation in November 1922 decides on its dissolution and the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East. On the evening of November 14, the army commanders of the republic, on behalf of the National Assembly, appealed to the All-Russian CEC with a request to admit the Far Eastern Republic to Soviet Russia. The buffer state, created by the incredible efforts of so many people, brilliantly fulfilling its mission, has sunk into history. And in 1922, on November 15, the Far Eastern Region appeared as part of the RSFSR.