How did the rumor that the Americans did not fly to the moon
On July 21, 1969, American astronaut Neil Amstrong set foot on the moon. However, to this day one can hear the opinion that the landing of Americans on the Moon is a great hoax.
The theory of "lunar conspiracy"
In 1974, the book saw the American Bill Keizing "We have never flown to the moon." She was the beginning of the spread of the theory of the "lunar conspiracy." Keizing had reason to raise this topic, as he worked for Rocketdyne, which built rocket engines for the Apollo program.
As arguments confirming the staging of flights to the moon, the author draws attention to the incidents of "lunar photographs" - the unevenness of shadows, the absence of stars, the small size of the Earth. Kaising also refers to the lack of technological equipment of NASA by the time of the lunar program.
The number of supporters of the "lunar conspiracy" grew rapidly, as the number of exposures of a manned flight to the moon increased.So David Percy - a member of the British Royal Photographic Society - has already made a more detailed analysis of the photographs provided by NASA. He argued that in the absence of an atmosphere, the shadows on the moon should be completely black, and the different directions of these shadows gave him reason to assume the presence of several sources of illumination.
Skeptics noted other strange details - the fluttering of the American flag in airless conditions, the absence of deep craters, which were to be formed when the lunar module landed. Engineer Rene Ralph tabled an even more weighty argument - to prevent astronauts from being exposed to radiation, their spacesuits had to be covered with at least an 80-cm layer of lead!
In 2003, the widow of American director Stanley Kubrick, Christian, added fuel to the fire, stating that the scenes of landing the Americans on the moon were filmed by her husband in Hollywood pavilions.
On the "lunar conspiracy" in Russia
Strangely enough, but in the USSR no one seriously questioned the flights of the Apollo to the moon seriously. In particular, materials appeared in the Soviet press after the first landing of Americans on the Moonconfirming this fact. Concerning the success of the American lunar program, many Russian astronauts also spoke out. Among them are Alexei Leonov and Georgy Grechko.
Alexey Leonov said the following: “Only completely ignorant people can seriously believe that Americans were not on the Moon. And, unfortunately, all this ridiculous epic about the frames allegedly fabricated in Hollywood began with the Americans themselves. ”
True, the Soviet cosmonaut did not deny the fact that some scenes of the Americans staying on the moon were shot on Earth in order to give the video report a specific sequence: it was off! ”
The confidence of domestic experts in the success of the lunar mission is primarily due to the fact that the Apollo process of flying to the Moon was recorded by Soviet equipment. These are signals from the ships, negotiations with the crew, and a television picture of the astronauts coming to the surface of the moon.
In case the signals came from the Earth, it would be immediately exposed.
Pilot-cosmonaut and designer Konstantin Feoktistov in his book “The Trajectory of Life. Between yesterday and tomorrow ", in order to reliably simulate the flight, it would be necessary" to land a television repeater on the Moon's surface in advance and check its operation (with transmission to Earth). And in the days of the expedition imitation, it was necessary to send a radio relay to the Moon to simulate the Apollo radio communication with the Earth on the flight path to the Moon. ” To arrange such a hoax, according to Feoktistov, is no less difficult than a real expedition.
Also about the "lunar conspiracy" spoke Russian President Vladimir Putin, calling in one of the interviews "complete nonsense," the version that the United States falsified the landing on the moon.
Nevertheless, in modern Russia, exposing articles, books, films continue to appear about the impossibility of technically carrying out such a flight, they are also meticulously understood and criticized by photos and videos of the “lunar expedition”.
NASA admits that they are overwhelmed with so many letters with this or that argument proving the falsification of flights that they are unable to fend off all attacks.However, some of the objections can be dropped, knowing the elementary laws of physics.
It is known that the location of the shadow depends on the shape of the object throwing them and on the surface topography - this explains the unevenness of the shadows on the lunar photographs. Shadows converging at a distant point are nothing more than a manifestation of the law of perspective. The idea of several sources of illumination (searchlights) is untenable in and of itself, since in this case each of the illuminated objects would cast at least two shadows.
The appearance of a banner flying in the wind is due to the fact that the flag was placed on a flexible aluminum base that was in motion, while the upper crossbar was not fully extended, which created a wrinkle effect. On Earth, air resistance quickly dampens oscillatory movements, but in an airless environment, these movements are much longer.
According to NASA engineer Jim Oberg, the most convincing evidence that the flag was installed on the Moon is the following fact: when the astronauts passed alongside the cloth, it remained absolutely motionless, which would not be in the conditions of the earth's atmosphere.
The fact that the stars in the daytime on the moon will not be visible, the astronomer Patrick Moore knew before the flight.He explains that the human eye, like the camera lens, simply cannot adapt simultaneously to the illuminated surface of the moon and the dim sky.
It’s harder to explain why the landing module didn’t leave any craters on the lunar surface, or at least did not disperse the dust, although NASA experts motivate this by the fact that during landing the device slowed down and lengthened along a sliding path.
Probably the most compelling argument of the supporters of the "conspiracy theory" is that the crew of the ship simply could not overcome the radiation "Van Allen belt" surrounding the Earth and would have burned alive. However, Van Allen himself was not inclined to exaggerate his theory, explaining that the passage of the belt at high speed did not threaten the astronauts.
Nevertheless, it remains a mystery how astronauts escaped from the powerful radiation on the surface of the moon in fairly light space suits.
Peering into the moon
In the hot debates, it was a little forgotten that the astronauts, after each successful descent, installed laser range finders on the moon. In the Texas Observatory "MacDonald", for several decades directing a laser beam at the corner reflector of lunar installations, specialists received a response signal in the form of flashes,which was fixed by highly sensitive equipment.
By the 40th anniversary of the Apollo-11 flight, the LRO automatic interplanetary station took a whole series of shots at the landing sites of the lunar modules, recording the alleged remnants of the equipment of American crews. Later, higher-resolution photos were taken on which you can see traces of the all-terrain vehicle and even, according to NASA, a chain of traces of the astronauts themselves.
However, more confidence inspire pictures taken by disinterested parties. For example, the Japanese space agency JAXA reported that the Kaguya apparatus found possible traces of the Apollo-15 station. And an employee of the Indian Space Research Organization, Prakash Chauhan, said that the Chandrayan-1 device had received an image of a fragment of the landing module.
However, only a new manned flight to the Moon can finally dot the “and”.