How many deputies are in the State Duma of the Russian Federation?
Number of deputies in the State Dumadefines the Russian Constitution. For its existence, and this is more than two decades, this law has not undergone significant changes. At the same time, the history of Russian parliamentarism is much longer. Let's find out how many deputies in the State Duma of Russia, as well as some other nuances of the functioning of this body and its history.
The origins of Russian parliamentarism
Before we find out how many deputies are in the State Duma, let's plunge into the history of the emergence of Russian parliamentarism.
The first parliament in our country, whichcalled - the State Duma, arose even in the times of the Russian Empire. Its foundation was a kind of cession of the monarchy to the people, who demanded the right to participate in the government of the country, which led to the unfinished revolution of 1905. At the same time, Emperor Nicholas II issued a decree on the establishment of the State Duma. True, her decisions were not mandatory, but only an advisory character.
In December 1905, the first convocation of thisthe parliamentary body has earned. The number of deputies in the State Duma was 448 people. Most of them were in the fractions of the Constitutional Democrats (153 people), Trudoviks (97 people) and autonomists (63 people). 105 deputies were not in any party. The first meeting of the Duma of this convocation dates back to April 1906, but it worked only 72 days and in July it was dissolved according to the imperial decree.
The Duma of the second convocation worked in the first half1907 year. This time the total number of deputies in the State Duma was 518 people. Now the majority was with the Trudoviks (104 deputies), while the cadets have only 98 deputies. The removal of deputies of the State Duma was carried out in June 1907, when the parliamentary body was dissolved under the pretext of suspicion of an attempt by some of its members to carry out a coup d'état.
The Duma of the third convocation worked from 1907 to 1912. 446 deputies were represented in it. This time the majority was among the Octobrists - 154 people.
How many deputies in the State Dumalast, fourth, convocation, which worked from 1912 to 1917? 442 deputies took part in its activities. Most of all there were again Octobrists - 98 people. It was dissolved after the February Revolution in October 1917, when elections to the Constituent Assembly were scheduled. But the further prospects for Russian parliamentarism have remained unfulfilled, since the October Revolution of 1917 took place in the country.
Already after the Bolsheviks came to power, the legislative body of the RSFSR, and then the Russian Federation, became the Supreme Soviet. He exercised the legislative function from 1938 to 1993.
Formation of the State Duma of the Russian Federation
The reason for the formation of a new parliamentarybody was the attempt of a significant part of the Supreme Council's deputy corps led by its speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov in October 1993 to carry out a coup d'état. The attempt failed, but it served as an occasion for the dissolution of the Supreme Council.
In the same year, Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a decree on the formation of a new parliamentary body - the State Duma. Elections to the Duma were carried out as early as December 1993.
Functions of the State Duma
Now let's find out what is the activity of the deputies of the State Duma.
The State Duma is the highestlegislative body in Russia. That is, the main duty of deputies is the legislative process. This parliamentary body has the status of the lower chamber of the Federal Assembly, the upper house of which is the Federation Council.
The rights and duties of members of parliament are indicated in theLaw on the status of a deputy of the State Duma. For example, this law guarantees parliamentary immunity, as well as a number of other privileges of people's representatives.
Term of office of deputies
Initially, during the transition period immediatelyafter the establishment of the State Duma, the deputies of the first convocation received their full powers for a period of two years. But already from the next convocation it was planned to increase this term to four years. So it was done, so from 1995 to 2011, the deputies from the second to the fifth convocation received the authority for a period of four years.
But since 2011, the term of deputy authority wasincreased to five years. It was for this period that the deputies of the sixth convocation were given the opportunity to perform their duties. This was done to save budgetary funds for the conduct of elections.
The next elections to the State Duma deputies are scheduled for September 2016.
What is the system of elections of deputies of the State Duma? As mentioned above, if previously elections of deputies were held every four years, now they are held every five years.
In Russia there is a mixed system of elections. That is, half of the deputies are elected in a single-mandate electoral district, and the other half by party lists. Thus, in the first case, voters vote for a particular person who, in case of victory in the district, becomes a deputy, and in the second case - for a party. It is this approach that maximizes the interests of specific regions, as well as the electoral preferences of voters.
Number of Deputies
Now let's find out how many deputies are in the State Duma. The Constitution of Russia provides a clear answer to this question, which specifies the size of the parliament.
At the moment there are 450 deputies in the State Duma. At the same time, this number has not changed since the formation of this parliamentary body in 1993.
Composition of the State Duma
We learned how many in the State Duma of the Russian Federationdeputies. At the same time, it is equally important to know what forces at the moment represent the people's interests. A full list of deputies of the State Duma for 450 people due to its cumbersomeness will not be presented here, but we can study the structure of the parliament by learning the number of representatives from the factions in it.
At the moment, most of all in the Duma deputies frompro-government faction "United Russia" - 238 people. Then followed by deputies from the Communist Party - 92 people. Following them are representatives of the faction "Fair Russia" - 64 people. The least of all in the parliament of deputies from the LDPR is 56 people. This number of deputies is justified optimally by the need for representation of various districts of Russia, as well as political forces.
Structure of the Parliament
Now let's find out how structuredThe State Duma and its internal organization. After all, 450 deputies are still a considerable number of people, and each of them, in addition to the main function of lawmaking, must perform additional tasks in the parliament.
On the factional division of deputies, we are in general termssaid above. One has only to say that the factions are groups of deputies united by a single long-term goal and a common vision for the further development of the country. Most often factions are formed around individual parties or are created from the unification of several parties.
The first person in the State Duma isChairman. His duties include directing the work of the parliament during the sessional activity, as well as presenting it in the relations with other state structures, as well as foreign parliamentary bodies. The Chairman of the State Duma is elected by deputies by secret ballot, usually at the first session of the convocation. In addition, the first deputy and deputies are elected. Their duties include assisting the chairman in the conduct of the session, in addition, the first deputy must replace him, in case of absence for any reason. At the moment, the chairman of the State Duma is a member of the pro-government party "United Russia" Sergei Naryshkin.
The main task of the apparatus of the State Duma isensuring the smooth functioning of the Russian parliament. This body is obliged to monitor material, technical, information, financial and organizational support for the activities of deputies. Headed over this structure is the head of the apparatus of the State Duma. At the moment, this post is occupied by Jahan Rejepovna Pollyeva.
Concrete directions of lawmakingactivities are dealt with by the State Duma committees. They consist of deputies, organized into groups by individual segments, often according to the party quota. Currently the main committees are:
- on constitutional legislation;
- on the budget;
- on labor and social policy;
- on economic policy;
- on property issues;
- on energy;
- on the industry;
- on health protection;
- of Education.
In addition, there are a number of other committees. Specific bills are being developed and discussed in these structural subdivisions of the parliament, according to the profile direction of the committee. The activities of the committees are led by the chairmen, who have first deputies and deputies.
Very similar to the work of committees activitiescommissions. The main difference is that the tasks of these structures include not law-making activity, but control over any direction of functioning. Sometimes commissions are specially formed to monitor the performance of a specific task. At present, there are six commissions in the Russian parliament:
- to monitor the reliability of information on income;
- on matters of parliamentary ethics;
- account commission;
- building of buildings for the parliamentary center;
- to control the development of the defense industry of Russia;
- to control the expenditure of funds from the budget, aimed at providing the nat. security.
At the head of each commission is the chairman.
Another structural body of the RussianParliament is the Council of the State Duma. It is this body that prepares specific bills for consideration at the session, and plans the work of parliament during the sessional procedure. That is, it is the body that conducts preliminary work on prepared bills before passing them to the general consideration of deputies.
The Council is headed by the chairman of the State Duma. In addition, the Council includes his deputies and leaders of parliamentary factions. But the chairmen of the committees have only the right of an advisory vote in this body.
Such in general terms is the structure of the organization of the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
Dissolution of the State Duma
The possibility of dissolving parliament is envisagedThe Constitution of. This procedure can be carried out if the Duma has three times rejected the candidates proposed by the president for the post of prime minister or three times it expresses distrust. In this case, the head of state can use his constitutional right to dissolve the parliament. But so far, in the newest Russian history, this procedure for the dissolution of the State Duma has not been applied. The only dissolution of the parliamentary body was carried out in 1993 under President Boris Yeltsin. But then it was still called the Supreme Soviet, that is, it was before the establishment of the Duma.
In addition, several times the suspensiondeputies of the State Duma were carried out on an individual basis. In this case, the parliament itself decides on the removal of its individual members. For example, according to this procedure, Ilya Ponomarev, a member of the Just Russia faction, was removed from the Duma.
The Importance of Parliamentarism
The importance of the State Duma in Russia is difficultto overestimate. After all, it is precisely this body of state power through which, through the institution of elections, citizens exercise their constitutional right to govern the country. Its tasks include the adoption of legislative acts, as well as the implementation of a number of monitoring functions, and some other tasks. That is, in other words, it is from the State Duma that the adoption of specific laws in the country depends.
The existing number of deputies in the parliamentscientifically justified by the required number of representatives from all regions of Russia, and various political forces, so as to take into account the interests of the entire population of the country. That is why it was decided to stop at the number of 450 deputies.
Of course, like any institution of power,parliamentarism is far from ideal. At the same time, it should be noted that a more effective management body through which the entire mass of the population, having the citizenship of a particular state, can influence state policy, has not yet been invented in the world. In addition, the existence of several branches of power, including a separate legislative body functioning through the parliament, makes it possible to control other branches of government (executive and judicial) and prevent the usurpation of the country's administration by one of them or the president.