Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia

In the past, I began to talk about the Temple cascade of hydroelectric power stations located on the river of the same name in Georgia. Khrami HPP-1 is the upper stage of the cascade and there is also a daily regulation pool and water intake for Khrami HPP-2.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

Khrami HPP-2 is a diversion power plant with a daily regulation pool and an underground HPP building. The hydraulic scheme of the hydroelectric station is based on the use of water flow from the Khrami HPP-1, lateral inflow in Reu Khrami between the stations of HPP-1 and HPP-2, as well as the flow of the Chochani and Karabulah rivers (tributaries of the Khrami), which are diverted through tunnels.
The station was commissioned on December 29, 1962, but the units were put into operation on March 23 and 11, each with an installed capacity of 55 megawatts.
1. The daily regulation basin at Khrami HPP-1. In the left corner is the water intake Khrami HPP-2.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

2. The valley where the second station is located.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

3. Open switchgear and portal of the tire-cargo tunnel. And in the mountain, which is right on the course, there is an underground machine room of the station.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

four.Khrami-1 HPP and Khrami-2 HPP produce about a third of all electricity consumed by Tbilisi during the year.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

5. Portal of the tire-cargo tunnel.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

6. It's time to look at the diagram. It is clickable so that you can all see. From above and to the left, the beginning of the derivation is almost 13 kilometers long. On the way there is a water intake from the Chotiani and Karabulah rivers. In the case of stopping the first station, the Khrami HPP-2 will operate at the expense of the water of the Dashbash rivers (I did not understand where it is on the diagram, but it is listed on the station’s website), Chochani and Karabulahi. Thus, Khrami HPP-2 is supplied with water practically throughout the whole year.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

. :: clickable ::.
7. Equalization chamber and Karabulahskaya derivation.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

8. Underground machine hall.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

9. Machine room close-up. Overall height - 34 meters!
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

. :: clickable ::.
10. Tire-guz tunnel with a length of 500 meters.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

11. Gallery repair gates.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

12. They are already placed at the outlet of the hydraulic unit (they are indicated on the large diagram) and serve to shut off water from the downstream. Pay attention to the end wall - left the rock, which seems to be sprayed with concrete.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

13. And here a piece of the arch was left without lining. Rock rocks allow it.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

14. Machine room station. There are two hydraulic units with vertical radial-axial turbines,operating at a design head of 307 m (maximum head - 330 m), the maximum flow rate through each turbine is 21.5 m³ / s. Turbines drive 60 MW hydrogenerators. Initially, prior to the replacement of turbines, the power plant capacity was 110 MW (2x55 MW). The hydrogenerators of the production of the Electrosila plant, the turbines were originally produced by the Leningrad Metal Plant, but were later replaced with new Italian ones.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

15. Antique plate
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

16. The section of the tunnel: the bottom of the pedestrian-cargo part, and on top of the bus.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

17. Tire part.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

18. The control station is located in the same place, underground. It’s a long time to walk there without a bicycle.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

19. The station is owned by Khrami HPP-2, owned by the Russian Inter RAO Group. Hydropower equipment is outdated and requires reconstruction. Since 1996, the HPP rehabilitation program has been implemented, which was carried out in 1996-2000 through a loan in the amount of $ 27 million provided by the Government of Japan, and since 2006, it has been funded by Inter RAO. In the process of rehabilitation, the hydroelectric turbines were replaced in 2010 with new Italian-made (which made it possible to increase the hydroelectric power station capacity by 10 MW), the ball valves were equipped with new oil-pressure devices, and the hydroelectric power plant management systems were modernized.Further modernization of the station is planned, in particular, the reconstruction of the switchyard.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

20. During the riots in the 90s, the station units often operated at a frequency of 43 Hertz, which resulted in equipment wear not calculated for such a reduced frequency. And in the history of the station there was another interesting episode - in 1972 a flood occurred on the Khrami River, the water came out of the riverbed and flooded the territory of the hydroelectric station, entered the tire and cargo tunnel and flooded the underground part of the hydroelectric station. After that, the water was pumped out by pumps. The station was stopped for 3 months until the staff dried the generators and restored the battery system.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

21. Ball valve chamber.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

22. The station was built during the Cold War and is located at a depth of 165 meters in the rock.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

23. Some kind of stand.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

24. Turbine. Rather spiral chamber. The units were experimental, their individual units were repeatedly altered.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

25. Drive guide apparatus.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

26. Laz into the spiral chamber. Climb out on the exhale only!
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

27. The lowest part of the station is the drainage chamber.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

28. Portal outlet tunnel.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

29. Downstream the river was supposed to build several stations, but alas, it did not work out.
Khrami HPP-2 in Georgia Khrami, station, tunnel, part, Station, is, camera, Chotiani, regulation, daily, click-through, production, is, flooded, maximum, “Inter, Portal, Karabuli, current, operation

Many thanks to all who accompanied us during the filming.

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