Linguistic terms: mini-dictionary for schoolchildren
When studying Russian at school, ratherLinguistic terms are often found that are not always clear to schoolchildren. We tried to make a short list of the most used concepts with decoding. In the future, students can use it in the study of the Russian language.
Linguistic terms used in the study of phonetics:
- Phonetics is a section of linguistics that deals with the study of the sound system.
- Sound is the minimum particle of speech. Vowels and consonants sing out.
- Syllable - one or often several sounds, pronounced in one exhalation.
- Emphasis is a vowel sound in speech.
- Orthoepy is a section of phonetics that studies the norms of pronunciation of the Russian language.
When studying spelling, it is necessary to operate with the following terms:
- Orthography is a section that studies spelling norms.
- Orthogram - writing a word according to the rules of spelling.
Lexicology and Phraseology
- Lexeme is a dictionary unit, a word.
- Lexicology is a section of the Russian language that learns lexemes, their origin and functioning.
- Synonyms are words that have a similar meaning in different spellings.
- Antonyms are words of opposite meaning.
- Paronimy - words that have a similar spelling, but different meanings.
- Homonyms are words that have the same spelling, but they have different meanings.
- Phraseology is a section of linguistics that studies phraseological units, their features and principles of functioning in language.
- Etymology is the science of the origin of words.
- Lexicography is a section of linguistics that studies the rules of compiling dictionaries and their study.
A few words about what Russian linguistic terms are used in the study of morphology.
- Morphology is the science of language, which studies parts of speech.
- The noun is an independent part of speech. It denotes the subject, about which the speech is being conducted and answers the questions: "who?", "What?".
- Adjective - indicates the sign or state of the subject and answers the questions: "what?", "What?", "What?". Refers to the individual parts.
- A verb is a part of speech, indicating action and answering questions: "what does?", "What will it do?".
- Numeral - indicates the number or order of objects and answering the questions: "how many?", "Which?". Refers to independent parts of speech.
- A pronoun refers to an object or person, its attribute, without calling it.
- An adverb is part of the speech, indicating the sign of action. He answers questions: "how?", "When?", "Why?", "Where?".
- The preposition is the official part of speech that connects words.
- Union is a part of speech that connects syntactic units.
- Particles are words that give an emotional or semantic color to words and sentences.
In addition to the terms we mentioned earlier, there are a number of other concepts that the student should know. Let us highlight the main linguistic terms that are also worth remembering.
- Syntax is a section of linguistics that studies sentences: the features of their structure and functioning.
- Language - a sign system, constantly in development. Serves for communication between people.
- Idiolect - features of speech of the concrete person.
- Dialects are varieties of one language, which are opposed to the literary version of it. Depending on the territory, each dialect has its own characteristics. For example, okanje or akanie.
- Abbreviation is the formation of nouns by means of abbreviations of words or phrases.
- Latinism is a word that came to us from the Latin language.
- Inversion is a deviation from the generally accepted order of words, which makes the rearranged element of the sentence stylistically marked.
The following linguistic terms, examples and definition of which you will see, are often encountered when considering the style of the Russian language.
- Antithesis is a stylistic device based on opposition.
- Graduation is a method based on the injection or weakening of homogeneous means of expressiveness.
- Diminutive is a word formed with the help of a diminutive suffix.
- Oxymoron is a technique in which combinations of words with seemingly incompatible lexical meanings are formed. For example, "living corpse."
- Euphemism - the replacement of a word related to obscene language, neutral.
- Epithet is a stylistic path, often an adjective with expressive coloring.
This is not a complete list of necessary words. We have given only the most necessary linguistic terms.
Studying the Russian language, school children every now and thenthey encounter words whose meanings are unknown to them. To avoid problems in teaching, it is desirable to have your own personal dictionary of school terms on the Russian language and literature. Above we have given the main linguistic terms that will be encountered more than once in school and university studies.