Epidemic parotitis (mumps, haws) is an acute highly infectious disease characterized by fever, general intoxication, lesion of salivary glands, and sometimes genital and other glands, nervous system.
The causative agent of the disease is a virus that is unstable outside the body, and is destroyed by heat and ultraviolet radiation.
Source of infection- only a person, sick with bright signs of disease or without them. The patient becomes infectious 1-2 days before the onset of signs of the disease and in the first 5 days of the disease. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets. Susceptibility to the disease is high. More often sick children. Males suffer from mumps 1.5 times more often than women.
Disease development process
The virus enters the body through the respiratory tract. In their mucous membrane multiplies and blood is spread throughout the body. In the glandular organs and the nervous system, it finds favorable conditions for further reproduction. After the transferred disease of any severity level, persistent immunity to repeated infection develops.
The incubation period lasts from 11 to 23 days. Inflammation of the salivary glands. The patient has a fever, malaise, headache, pain in the ear, aggravated by chewing, talking, dry mouth. At the same time or a little later, edema appears under one of the earlobes without changing the color of the skin and local temperature increase (inflammation of the parotid gland). The enlargement of the gland occurs quickly and reaches a maximum within 3 days. At this level, swelling lasts for 2-3 days, and then gradually, within 7-10 days, decreases. Body temperature reaches a maximum severity of 1-2 days of illness and lasts 4-7 days.
In 60% of cases, both parotid salivary glands are affected. Usually, 4–5 days after the onset of the disease, when the affected gland begins to shrink, the other parotid salivary gland swells. Sometimes the submandibular salivary glands are affected. In 25% of those infected, the disease proceeds without obvious signs of illness. Inflammation of the testicle and its appendage. Inflammation of the testicles occurs more often in adults - 20-35% of patients. In most cases, on the 5-7th day from the onset of the disease, the body temperature rises again to 39-40 o C, there are severe pains in the scrotum and testicle. The testicle increases, reaching the size of a goose egg, becomes painful.
Inflammation of the testicle may precede the damage of the salivary glands or occur simultaneously. Sometimes testicular inflammation develops in the absence of damage to the salivary glands. In 3-17% of patients both testicles are affected.
In half of the cases (in the absence of special treatment), inflammation of the testicle during epidemic parotitis after 1-2 months causes its decrease with weakening of the function. In the case of bilateral reduction of the testicles after inflammation with mumps, infertility often develops.
The defeat of the central nervous system in case of epidemic parotitis occurs in every tenth child, in boys it is 3 times more likely than in girls. In most cases, on the 4th-7th day of the illness, chills appear, the body temperature rises again to 39 o C and higher, a severe headache, vomiting appears. The patient develops inflammation of the lining of the brain.
In 25-30% of patients, inflammation of the meninges develops simultaneously with the onset of inflammation of the salivary glands, in every tenth it can precede, and in many patients it can develop without damage to the salivary glands.
Recovery from inflammation of the meninges during mumps is slow.
In some patients, along with inflammation of the membranes of the brain, inflammation of the brain develops, which is manifested by lethargy, drowsiness, impaired consciousness. Subsequently, they may have changes in the central nervous system in the form of behavioral disturbances, headaches, seizures, deafness in one ear, and visual impairment.
The doctor should always diagnose the disease, since an increase in the salivary glands can be confused with swelling of the neck in diphtheria, which requires immediate provision of emergency care to the patient in an infectious diseases hospital.
Treatmentusually done at home. Patients with lesions of the central nervous system and inflammation of the testicle are sent to the infectious diseases hospital.
Drugs acting on the virus of mumps does not exist.
Patients with inflammation of salivary glands need bed rest, moderately liquid milk and vegetable food, rinsing the mouth after each meal.
With the development of testicular inflammation, urgent hospitalization is required for effective treatment.
Prevention of disease. To create immunity to mumps, vaccination of children from 1.5 years is provided. Vaccination is carried out once. It should be administered to children, adolescents and adult men who have not had epidemic parotitis, and those who have not had it in the past. Patients are isolated at home. Isolation stops after 9 days from the onset of the disease.
Children under 10 years of age who have come into contact with a patient who have not suffered from epidemic parotitis are subject to dissociation on the 21st day from the start of contact with the patient.