Okudzhava Bulat: biography, personal life, creativity, memory
Bulat Okudzhava is known in our country as a poet and composer, as well as a screenwriter, novelist, and just a very talented and interesting person. He argued that making songs is a great mystery, as incomprehensible as love. We will talk about the fate of this great bard in our article.
Okudzhava Bulat, whose biography interests many, was born in 1924, May 9th. He grew up in a family of convinced Bolsheviks. His parents came to Moscow from Tiflis to study at the Communist Academy. The daddy of the future celebrity - Shalva Stepanovich - is Georgian by nationality. He was a prominent party leader. Mother - Ashkhen Stepanovna - Armenian by birth. She was a relative of the famous Armenian poet Vahan Teryan. On the mother’s side, the celebrity had relatives with a militant and ambiguous past. His uncle, Vladimir Okudzhava, being a terrorist, made an attempt on the governor of Kutaisi.Later, he happened to appear in the passenger lists of a mysterious sealed train, which delivered the leading revolutionary leaders from Switzerland to Russia in 2017.
From childhood, Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava was aware of the fate of his ancestors. His paternal grandfather Pavel Peremushev settled in sunny Georgia in the middle of the 19th century. Before that, he served 25 years in the Russian army. By nationality, he was not a Russian, or a Moldovan, or a Jew. It is only known that Paul was a tailor, married a Georgian woman named Salome and gave birth to three daughters. The eldest of them later married Stepan Okudzhava. He served as a clerk. In marriage with him were born eight children. Among them was the future father of our hero - Shalva Stepanovich.
Childhood and youth
Since childhood, endured various tests Okudzhava Bulat. Biography of the future poet was associated with constant travel. The fact is that his father was a party leader. Immediately after the birth of his son, he was sent to the Caucasus to command a Georgian division. Meanwhile, Bulat’s mother remained in Moscow. She held a position in the party apparatus. The boy was sent to Tiflis to study.He attended a Russian-speaking class. His father was soon promoted. He became secretary of the city committee of Tiflis. However, he failed to stay in this position due to conflicts with Beria. With the assistance of Ordzhonikidze Shalva Stepanovich was transferred to work in Nizhny Tagil. He moved his whole family to the Urals. Bulat studied at school number 32. It was not easy for him to become accustomed to the harsh Siberian conditions after living in a friendly and sunny land.
In 1937, there was a tragedy. The boy's father was arrested. He was accused in connection with the Trotskyists, as well as in the attempt on the life of Ordzhonikidze. August 4 of the same year he was shot. After that Bulat together with his mother and grandmother moved to Moscow. The family settled in a communal apartment on the Arbat. But this trouble is not over. In 1938, Ashkhen Stepanovna was taken into custody. She was exiled to the Karlag. From there, she returned only in 1947. Aunt Bulat was shot in 1941. In 1940, our hero moved to Tbilisi. Here he graduated from school and got a job working at the factory as an apprentice turner.
Bulat Okudzhava, whose poems are known to everyone, in April 1942, sought recruitment into the army.However, he was drafted into the ranks of the Soviet troops only upon reaching the age of majority. In August of the same year, he was sent to the tenth reserve mortar division. Two months later he was sent to the Transcaucasian front by a mortar. He served in the Cavalry Regiment of the Fifth Guards Don Cavalry Cossack Corps. In late 1942, the future poet was wounded in the battle of Mozdok. After treatment, Bulat Shalvovich did not return to the front line. In 1943, he entered the service in the infantry reserve regiment of Batumi, and later was involved as a radio operator in the 126th howitzer artillery brigade, which covered the border with Iran and Turkey at that time. In the spring of 1944, our hero was demobilized. For good service he was awarded two medals - "For the Defense of the Caucasus" and "For the Victory over Germany." In 1985 he was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the first degree.
The first creative experiences
After demobilization, Okudzhava Bulat returned to Tbilisi. The poet’s biography was scorched by war. However, he was determined to return to his usual life and do what he loved. First, the young man received a certificate of secondary education.Then, in 1945, he entered the Faculty of Philology at the University of Tbilisi. He successfully graduated in 1950 and worked for two and a half years as a teacher in the Kaluga Region. All this time, our hero wrote talented poems. His first song is the composition “We didn’t subside in the cold warm houses”. It was created during the service of the poet in an artillery brigade. The text of the work has not been preserved. But the second creation has reached our days. This is an “Old Student Song” written in 1946. The writings of the author were first published in a garrison newspaper called “The Fighter of the Red Army”. It was printed under the pseudonym A. Dolzhenov.
Becoming a career
In the Kaluga region, he collaborated with the publication “Young Leninist” by Bulat Okudzhava. The poems of the poet first came out in large quantities in 1956 in the collection "Lyrics". In the same year, the poet’s father and mother were rehabilitated. After the XX Congress of the CPSU, he joined the Communist Party. Three years later he moved to Moscow and began to give concerts of the author's song. As a bard, he quickly became popular. Between 1956 and 1967, the most famous songs of Bulat Shalvovich were written - “On Tverskoy Boulevard”, “A Song about the Komsomol Goddess”, “A Song about a Blue Ball” and others.
Okudzhava Bulat Shalvovich first spoke at his official evening in 1961. Benefit held in Kharkov. In 1962, the poet made his debut as an actor. He played in the film "Chain Reaction". Here he happened to perform one of his most famous songs - “Midnight Trolleybus”. In 1970, Soviet viewers saw the film “Belarus Station”. In it, the actors sang the unofficial anthem of Soviet citizens who overcame the terrible ordeals of World War II, “We need one victory.” Okudzhava became the author and other favorite songs from the films “Straw Hat” and “Zhenya, Zhenya and“ Katyusha ”. The author wrote musical compositions to eighty pictures.
In 1967, Bulat Okudzhava traveled to Paris. Songs of the poet became known not only in Russia, but also abroad. In France, he recorded twenty of his songs at the studio "Le Chant du Monde". A year later, on the basis of these tracks, the first bard record was released. In the same period, another Okudzhava album was released. It includes songs performed by Polish singers. The composition "Farewell to Poland" was recorded in the author's interpretation.
Creativity Bulat Okudzhava gained increasing popularity. In the mid-1970s, his records were released in the Soviet Union.In 1976 and 1978, the Soviet giant discs appeared on sale with recordings of the singer and poet. The mid-1980s were also very fruitful for Bulat Shalvovich. He created two more albums - "Songs and Poems about War" and "The Author Sings New Songs."
The poet Bulat Okudzhava composed several songs on the texts of the Polish author Agnieszka Osetska. He himself translated into Russian the poems he liked. In collaboration with the composer Schwarz, our hero created thirty-two songs. Among them are “Your Honor, Mrs. Luck”, “The Knight's Guard is not so long ...”, “Love and Separation”.
Became one of the brightest representatives of the genre of art song in Russia Okudzhava Bulat. Biography of the poet has become the subject of close study. They admired his work, they tried to imitate him. With the advent of tape recorders, the penetrating author's compositions became known to a wide audience. Vladimir Vysotsky called Bulat Shalvovich his teacher. A.A. Galich and Y. Vizbor became his followers. The author and performer managed to create a unique direction in the Russian song culture.
Among the intelligentsia, Bulat Okudzhava won strong prestige.Celebrity songs were distributed in tape recordings. At first they became famous in the USSR, then they became popular abroad among Russian émigrés. Some compositions - “Let's join hands, friends ...”, “Prayer of Francois Villon” - became symbolic. They were used as hymns at rallies and festivals.
He was married twice to Bulat Okudzhava. The personal life of the poet was not easy. For the first time he was married to Galina Smolyaninova. However, the joint life of the spouses from the very beginning did not work out. Their daughter died while still a baby, and her son became a drug addict and eventually went to prison.
The second attempt was more successful. The poet married the physicist Olga Artsimovich. The son of Bulat Okudzhava from his second marriage, Anton, followed in his father’s footsteps and became a fairly well-known composer.
In the life of the bard was another beloved woman. His common-law wife was Natalia Gorlenko for a long time. She herself felt very fine music, sang songs. Bulat Okudzhava was happy with her. The personal life of this wonderful person in that period is connected with the most pleasant impressions.
Perestroika in the Soviet Union captured Bulat Shalvovich. He began to take an active part in the political life of the country. He showed negative attitudes towards Lenin and Stalin, and negatively treated the totalitarian regime. In 1990, the bard left the CPSU. Since 1992, he worked in commissions under the President of Russia. He dealt with issues of pardon and awarding of State Prizes of the Russian Federation. He was a member of the "Memorial". Sharply warped military actions in Chechnya.
End of life
In the 1990s, the poet settled at his own dacha in Peredelkino. During this period he toured extensively. I went with concerts to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Canada, Germany and Israel. In 1995, he took the stage for the last time. The performance took place in Paris, at UNESCO Headquarters.
In 1997, the poet died. He died at the age of 74 in a military hospital in a suburb of Paris. Before his death, he was baptized by the name of John in honor of the holy martyr John the Warrior. This happened after the blessing of one of the spiritual leaders of the Pskov-Caves Monastery.
Our hero is buried in Moscow, at the Vagankovo cemetery. His tomb is framed simply and unpretentiously - a stone block with the name of a bard written in handwritten script.
The first monument to Bulat Okudzhava was opened in 2002 in the capital.He stands at the intersection of Arbat and Plotnikov alley. Its author is Georgiy Frangulyan. The creation of the monument was timed to two memorable dates - the Victory Day and the poet's birthday. The creators recreated a piece of the old Arbat court: a gateway, two benches, a living tree ... In the center of the composition is the figure of a bard. This sculpture complex recalls the work of the bard and his nostalgic memories.
The second monument was erected on Bakulev street. The monument represents the young poet. He fearlessly looks to the future. On his shoulders - otleyvatski thrown over jacket. From under the floors you can see the faithful companion - the guitar. The composition is on high ground. The pedestal is a hill-bed. Two ways lead to its foot. This is connected with the unforgettable lines of the bard about two roads, one of which is “beautiful, but in vain”, and the other - “apparently, seriously.”
Now you know about what life Bulat Okudzhava lived. The poet's family preserved the best memories of him. This man lived and worked at the behest of the heart. And his heartfelt poems - about you and me. About love, temptation, duty, personal participation, the ability to empathize, to overcome difficulties, not to be afraid of future challenges. About quivering dream, reckless youth and touching, covered with memories, maturity.The legacy of the bard forever entered the fund of Russian and world culture.