Property as an economic category. Signs, functions, types of property
For a long time, under the property they understood only power over a certain material benefit. However, in 1840, French economist Pierre Proudhon determined that such an understanding of property is nothing more than a common theft. Indeed, during the acquisition of material value by one person, the second party is in fact deprived of this value.
Only at first glance under the property should be understood the attitude of a particular person to things. In reality, property as an economic category is a relationship between persons who are conditionally divided into non-owners and owners.
The main signs of ownership
Currently, there are the following number of basic signs of ownership:
- the presence of both one and several, many subjects of property between which relations are established;
- the existence of relations between the subjects associated with the appropriation of certain material goods;
- direct connection of the above relations with the alienation of material goods from the subjects;
- appropriation of activities aimed at creating wealth;
- the presence of a direct dependence of the income of a person on his wealth, real estate, means of production.
Proceeding from the main features, property as an economic category is a relationship that has developed in the course of historical development between subjects about the alienation or appropriation of material wealth.
According to the functions determine the role of property plays in the field of public relations. First of all, it is the basis of the economic system. If we talk about a market economy, then private property is predominant.
From the property directly depends on the position in society of specific classes, groups and strata of subjects, as well as the possibility of their access to the application of the achievements of all spheres of production.
Among other things, the economic category of property is the result of the historical development of human society. The defining driving force here is the development of production in the course of the transformation of the economic system as a whole.
Despite the fact that within the boundaries of a certain economic system there are their prevailing forms of ownership, this does not exclude the presence of other transitional forms, for example remnants of the past or peculiar beginnings of the transition to a qualitatively new system.
Ultimately, one of the main functions of property can be considered the possibility of transition from one form to another in an evolutionary way. The main operating mechanism of this process is healthy competition, the struggle for survival, forcing out the old and replacing it with the qualitatively new.
Types of property in the economy
There are several separate types of property:
- Labor property - available to any subject and citizen. This type is based on personal work, has the widest distribution, but does not have a dominant status in any economic system.
- Collective, private property - the interest of the owner here is realized through the organization of various forms of property rights: cooperatives, joint-stock companies, partnerships, private enterprises.
- Intellectual property is only a specific, non-material type of property.
The concept of ownership in the sphere of industrial relations
There are a number of signs according to which property occupies a determining position in the sphere of production relations. So, to consider the totality of material goods that fall under the definition of property, should be the foundation of the system of social relations in general.
The assignment of a certain position to a certain section of society, the presence or absence of the possibility of using specific factors of production for these persons directly depends on property. Each economic system is characterized by a dominant, specific form of ownership, which acts as a kind of driving force for the development of the entire production sector.
The notion of ownership
Under the assignment should be understood the acquisition of economic ties between material goods and the subject to which these benefits begin to belong. At the same time, assignment means to be active in relation to personal property objects.
The organization of any production is in its essence nothing more than the appropriation by the subjects of natural wealth of energy in order to satisfy the demands of society and their own needs. Proceeding from this, if appropriation rarely goes without production and the emergence of new material goods, then production is carried out in the environment of a specific form of ownership.
The attribution is expressed in the absence of legal opportunities for the use of certain material benefits, including the process and results of production, without entering into a relationship with the owner.
Notion of property alienation
Property should be considered as an economic category from the position of not only appropriation, but also the alienation of tangible or intellectual property. By alienation in this case it is necessary to understand the forced or voluntary deprivation of a particular subject of the possibility of using certain goods in consumption or production.
A striking example of the process of alienation of property is the procedure for the sale of property. Alienation can also occur by capturing the bulk of the production assets of one part of society, when the other part of it is left without the necessary means for subsistence.
Starting from the notion of alienation, it can be argued that property as an economic category is the establishment of relations between subjects related to the appropriation of material goods by indirect or indirect labor.
Public property is a separate special category of property. This concept implies the appropriation of goods and the results of production jointly.
Public property does not allow the division of society into separate layers and classes, and is also the basis for the emergence of mutual, disinterested cooperation and mutual assistance between the subjects of society.
The meaning of the existence of property is to create conditions for the legitimate right of subjects to acquire material goods, natural wealth, the results of labor and production.Moreover, such rights are accrued, first of all, to those who are able to derive the greatest benefit from property, as well as to those who value it above. After all, in the end, only the owner enjoys both positive and negative results of activity in relation to the existing property.