Pulpitis: Symptoms and Treatment Methods
To date, the profession of the dentist is very popular. The fact is that due to improper diet, poor hygiene, various diseases, a lot of people suffer from dental problems. And they can be very different. Pulpitis, symptoms and features of treatment of this disease, we will consider later, is a very common pathology that occurs in almost every person. Naturally, it brings a lot of pain and discomfort, so it must be eliminated. To begin, consider the types and causes of this problem.
What is the disease?
So, pathology is characterized by the appearance of an inflammatory process in the pulp of the tooth (neurovascular fibers). Symptoms you may not feel immediately. That is, pulpitis has a certain period of development. For example, pain will appear only when food, cold water, or air enters the inside of a tooth through an opening.
This disease is often a complication of caries, which is accompanied by damage to the upper layer of enamel. When this occurs, inflammation of the nerves and blood vessels inside the tooth. Sometimes the process may be accompanied by the release of pus. For a long time, a person may not seek help, because he does not feel pain. However, when the first symptoms appear, it will be very unpleasant for him. If you have pulpitis, the symptoms will help the doctor establish an accurate diagnosis along with a thorough debridement of the oral cavity.
Naturally, prolonged ignoring the problem will only lead to its complication, so you should not be content with just taking painkillers.
Why does the disease appear?
The causes of the development of pathology can be many. The most common are:
- Trauma to the teeth (breaking off a fragment, as a result of which pulp is exposed).
- A large number of pathogenic bacteria (as a result of caries and poor oral hygiene).
- Chemical effect on enamel.
- Poor and unhealthy diet (in this case, the teeth do not receive the required amount of "building material").
- Improperly selected toothbrushes.
- Inflammatory processes in the digestive tract and oral cavity.
- Infectious diseases in the body.
- Improper treatment of caries.
However, these reasons are not unique. Pathology may develop due to improper physiological structure of the teeth, enamel demineralization, problems with calcium absorption and other factors.
Signs of disease
If you have pulpitis, you do not feel the symptoms immediately. Only a regular examination of the dentist will help identify and fix the problem at an early stage of development. The disease can manifest itself by different symptoms:
- Painful sensations (they can have different intensity and type).
- The inability to eat hot meals, cold water.
- Oral discomfort.
- The ability to detect holes in the tooth tongue.
If you have acute pulpitis, the symptoms are felt almost immediately. Therefore, you will have to very quickly make an appointment with a doctor, and in some cases, home anesthesia of the tooth may not be crowned with success. In addition, pathology can develop under the seal, and in this case, you yourself can not do anything.
If you have chronic pulpitis, the symptoms may be slightly different.Naturally, painful sensations take place here, however, the patient does not always refer to the doctor, and they may pass with time. In this case, signs of pathology may disappear, but damage to the teeth remains. Most often, the patient complains of a little discomfort while eating, as well as a brief pain while eating hot or cold dishes.
If you have fibrous pulpitis, the symptoms also include formations on the gums, which may have different sizes. In addition, the pathology may be accompanied by bleeding, unpleasant putrefactive smell, the destruction of enamel.
Varieties of the disease
There is a definite classification of pulpitis. For example, according to the localization of the inflammatory process, these types of diseases can be distinguished:
In addition, pathology can also be classified by the nature of the course:
This classification of pulpitis is the most common and most accurate.
Characteristics of different types of disease
Now consider the types of pathology presented in more detail.So, the acute form of the disease is most often formed where there is dental caries. In this case, the gum swells, and the vessels that are in it, inflamed. In addition, nerve fibers can lose their function and degrade. Most often, this stage lasts several hours or more. If you do not immediately stop the development of acute handicap pulpitis, then it can turn into a chronic type of the disease. In addition, complications can be more severe.
Chronic pulpitis has less severe symptoms, but they are present periodically or permanently. It should be said that this form can develop independently or due to the appearance of an acute type of disease. Naturally, the pathology can spread to one or more teeth. Chronic pulpitis may be accompanied by the formation of purulent exudate. Naturally, in this case, an abscess is formed on the gum, which has to be opened and cleaned.
Chronic fibrous pulpitis is very unpleasant and painful. In this case, a large number of plasma cells and collagen fibers are in the cavity of the tooth.That is, benign lesions of various sizes may appear on the gum. Naturally, they strongly interfere with the patient, so you should get rid of them.
If you have gangrenous pulpitis, its symptoms are very similar to signs of an acute form. That is, a person may feel discomfort, intermittent severe pain. In addition, this pathology is accompanied by a partial or complete destruction of the pulp. Further, the cavity of the tooth usually does not extend the process, since granulation tissue is formed around the nidus. However, you can not be sure that everything will cost only one pulp.
There is another type of this disease - hypertrophic. At the same time, it is very similar in symptoms to the chronic form of pathology. In this case, granulation tissue grows in the cavity of the tooth. In this case, the neoplasm is soft and may bleed.
Naturally, whatever the disease, it should be treated so that complications do not appear, and your teeth are healthy. How to do this, consider next.
Features of the application of the biological method of treatment
So, this method allows at least partially to keep the pulp viable.This allows for the full formation of teeth. Most often the biological method is used to treat the disease in children. In addition, it helps prevent the further spread of pathology, so patients treat this problem much less frequently after a similar sanation of the oral cavity.
It should be noted that this method has certain contraindications. For example, if there is an active resorption of the roots of temporary teeth. And its use has a narrow focus. It should be noted that the biological method can give a large number of complications. Such treatment should be carried out very carefully and scrupulously.
This method consists in the fact that the pulp must be filled with a special medicine that contributes to the destruction of harmful microbes. To do this, use needleless injection tools. If pulp opening is not required, the paste is applied indirectly. In this case, the selected drugs should provide an antibacterial, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect. And medicines are required to promote the regeneration of the pulp, not to cause allergic reactions and irritations. One of these drugs is calcium hydroxide.For example, Kalmetsin is considered to be very effective in treating if a patient has chronic fibrous pulpitis. However, such drugs have their drawbacks.
After the paste has worked, the teeth are filled. Naturally, all affected areas should be well cleaned.
Surgical vital and devital treatment methods
There are other methods of treatment of pulpitis:
1. Vital amputation. It contributes to maintaining the viability of the root pulp. The method is applied in the case of chronic fibrous and acute types of pathology. In addition, it is effective in case the roots of the teeth have not yet completed their formation. If there is a strong resorption of the roots, then it is impossible to use the vital amputation. The procedure is performed using conduction anesthesia.
2. Vital extirpation. This method is used on permanent and temporary teeth. However, if the root is already formed, then it must be passable. The method can be used in children and adults. However, note that when using this treatment, you must apply a good painkiller.I must say that the vital extirpation is quite a long and tedious process, because in pediatric dentists it is used very rarely.
3. Devital amputation. It does not apply in case of gangrenous or chronic pulpitis in the acute stage. Such treatment consists of using arsenic paste, which kills part of the pulp and provides a painless follow-up therapy.
4. Devital extirpation. This method is used for all types of disease, as it provides for the complete removal of dental pulp with simultaneous filling of canals. Such treatment is considered the most reliable and gives the minimum number of complications. For filling canals, special oil-based dental pastes are used (Eugenol product).
For the treatment of children, all these methods can be used if the problem cannot be solved with the help of biological methods. In any case, the doctor must get rid of the source of infection. Before starting treatment, the child must be given an x-ray of the oral cavity. The fact is that the treatment of pulpitis of temporary teeth is not always appropriate.However, if the condition threatens the health of hard tissues, gums and will cause problems in the future, then therapy must be carried out.
It should also be noted that children are afraid of dental instruments. Therefore, the doctor must be very careful and delicate approach to the procedure, to interest the child. In this regard, in addition to painkillers, the child also needs psychological support from an adult.
Stages of surgical treatment
If you have pulpitis, symptoms (treatment should be prescribed only by a doctor) contribute to accurate diagnosis and the correct choice of therapy methods. Naturally, surgical removal of the pathology is the main today. The operation is carried out in stages. Sometimes the patient has to visit the doctor several times (in difficult cases and children).
So, the procedure for eliminating pathology consists of the following steps:
1. Use of drugs for anesthesia.
2. Disclosure of the dental cavity.
3. Cutting pulp below the level of its narrowing with a special boron.
4. Washing the wound surface with a disinfectant solution and applying a special paste and an insulating pad.
5. Tooth filling.
If the pulpitis is under the filling, the symptoms of the pathology are very similar to the acute form of inflammation. This condition is eliminated by the same operational method. Naturally, for this it is necessary to remove the seal. It is more difficult if there is a pin in the channels. In some situations, it also has to be deleted. The operation can last from 40 minutes to several hours. Although often the doctor prescribes several procedures.
Symptoms of pulpitis of the tooth in different people may be similar. As for the complications, here is “to each his own.” Naturally, you can suffer severe pain by using various medications. In this case, the disease becomes chronic and spreads to other teeth. However, self-medication will not lead to anything except the deterioration of the patient. Therefore, to use folk remedies in this case is meaningless.
The most common complication of pulpitis is periodontitis. It lies in the fact that inflammation gradually expands its localization and moves to those tissues that surround the root. That is, the chances of losing a tooth are increasing. Additionally, the destruction of bone tissue occurs, which is fraught with the fact that the patient can not be installed prosthesis.
Complications of the pathology are also considered cysts and granulomas.And a small focus of inflammation grows, and the infection can spread through the blood to other organs. It should be noted that complications can appear even after the treatment of the disease. This is expressed in toothache, swelling, purulent discharge. The reason for this may be insufficient quality disinfection of the pulp, poor root canal treatment, incomplete filling of the cavity.
Occasionally, complications can occur due to a fracture of the medical instrument that was being cleaned. It also happens that the patient may reveal an additional hidden root that has not been processed and sealed. Pulpitis after treatment may appear again if the procedure was not carried out carefully enough and in good faith.
To prevent complications, it is necessary to choose such dental clinics that have only positive feedback. In addition, you have the opportunity to go to the selected specialist after you learn about him all the information you need. In no case do not self-medicate and do not tighten with the elimination of pathology.
If you do not know how to treat pulpitis, dentistry will help you in this matter, as the industry has advanced far enough in methods and ways to eliminate a variety of diseases and defects of the oral cavity and teeth. However, it is best to carry out all preventive measures that will help you rid yourself of these unpleasant stages of treatment.
First of all, you need to follow all the rules of dental hygiene: timely cleaning twice a day, using a special thread, rinses that will help you to remove the remaining bacteria and plaque. Every six months, try to visit a dentist who can quickly treat existing problems. Do not tighten with the elimination of caries.
It is very important to monitor the state of the teeth in children until they can take care of them independently and understand that the health of the oral cavity is very important for the normal functioning of the whole organism.
That's all the features of the treatment and prevention of the presented disease. Only these activities will help you keep your teeth healthy and strong. Be healthy and do not forget about hygiene.