Queen of Great Britain. The Royal Family
Both men and women became monarchs. At the same time, the freedoms of the ruler were limited since the beginning of the 13th century by the Magna Carta. Today, the monarch of Great Britain is for the most part the country's brand.
Over the centuries in England changed many rulers. The name of the kingdom itself also changed. All over the world, it is often referred to as England, although the current name of the state is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Who is considered the first queen of Great Britain?
In order to answer this question, it is necessary to clarify which state is involved. Queens were more than enough, and they all surpassed many male monarchs of their time. First you need to decide what is the UK.
Official name of England
The name of the state has changed so many times. This was due to the accession to England in different years of Scotland, Wales, Ireland,and later disconnection of some territories.
By the 17th century, the state consisted of England and Ireland. Scotland was later joined. By the 19th century, Great Britain was a constitutional monarchy, which was called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After 1922, this name changed due to the independence of Ireland. From now until today, the name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
First Queen of England
The first female representative, who was able to keep the throne in England, is Elizabeth (Queen of Great Britain). She is the last representative of the Tudor dynasty, who ruled for more than two centuries.
The last of the Tudors was the daughter of Heinrich 8 and Anne Boleyn, who was his second, but not the last wife.
Elizabeth is not the first queen of England. She began to rule after the death of her sister Maria, who was remembered in history as the Bloody Mary.
On the world stage, England rose precisely during the reign of Elizabeth 1. Major achievements of that time:
- the defeat of the Invincible Armada (Spanish fleet);
- the activities of the pirate Francis Drake;
- the work of the Royal Troupe with William Shakespeare;
- the creation of the first English settlements in North America;
- the creation of the East India Company (trade with India).
I remember the Queen of Great Britain for her attitude to marriage, namely the fact that she never created a family. The absence of heirs led to the end of the Tudor dynasty. She was replaced on the throne by the Stuarts dynasty, whose first representative was Jacob 1.
The first ruler of the Kingdom of Great Britain
This official name was established under Queen Anne. Therefore, it is rightly considered the first queen of this state. She ascended the throne after the death of her sister Mary, and later her husband in 1702.
It was with her rule that Scotland was joined, which was still sovereign. In 1707, with the unification of England and Scotland, a new state emerged - the United Kingdom, which now had a single parliament.
Anna (Queen of Great Britain), like Elizabeth 1, was the last representative of her dynasty. After her death, the Stuarts ceased to rule. She was married, but all attempts to have children ended in tragic failures.
According to the “Act of the throne”, which was compiled in 1701, the throne passed to Sophia of Hanover. Since the successor had died before Anne, her son George became the ruler.
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
In addition to the title "Queen of Great Britain", Victoria was also proclaimed Empress of India. The term of her reign was more than 60 years and became a whole epoch in the history of the kingdom. The Victorian era was marked by the development of industry, science, military affairs, culture. It was the heyday of Great Britain.
Queen Victoria (1837-1901) came to power at the age of 18. She was quite popular among the people before the scandal associated with one of the maid of honor. The woman was charged in connection with John Conroy (companion of Victoria’s mother), but a medical checkup denied this. After a couple of months, the accused maid of honor died, and an autopsy revealed a tumor in her body. So it was refuted the charge in pregnancy, which the queen adhered to. After the incident, they began to boo her at public hearings.
The popularity of the people will return to it after the assassination attempt in 1840 by Edward Oxford.This happened after her wedding during the first pregnancy. During her life, Victoria had 9 children, despite the fact that she did not like the periods of pregnancy, feeding and the type of young children.
After there will be quite a few more attempts to shoot the queen. They were not successful, and the instigators in all cases were caught. None of them was executed.
In Ireland, Victoria is known by the nickname “The Queen of Hunger”. This was associated with the development of late blight on potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshade, which led to severe hunger.
Queen Victoria (1837–1901) did not just rule for more than 60 years, she was on the throne the longest monarchs in England. She died at the age of 81, leaving the crown to her son Edward.
Queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The descendant of Queen Victoria still rules in the person of Queen Elizabeth 2. She ascended the throne after the death of her father George 6 at the age of 25 years. She is recognized as a queen not only in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but also in 15 states around the world.
States in which Elizabeth 2 (Queen of Great Britain) is recognized by the ruler:
- Antigua and Barbuda.
- New Zealand.
- New Guinea.
- Solomon islands.
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
- Saint Lucia.
- Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Elizabeth 2 is the oldest monarch of the state. For the duration of the reign, she did not bypass only Queen Victoria.
Her reign is associated with the collapse of the colonial possessions of Great Britain. She is also known for interfering with the marriage of her son Charles to Princess Diana.
Hobbies of the modern queen
During her life, Elizabeth 2 (Queen of Great Britain) visited about 130 countries around the world. In ordinary life, she likes to breed dogs, take pictures. At one time, very fond of riding. In recent years, carried away by gardening.
Among the dogs, she most loves spaniels, labradors, corgi.
Powers of the modern monarch in England
Although the Queen and King of Great Britain are not engaged in the daily affairs of the state, they have many functions.
- declaration of war;
- dismissal of the government;
- the formation of state policy;
- is the head of the armed forces;
- the supreme ruler of the Church of England;
- ownership of shares of the Bank of England;
- award medals and other awards.
In this case, the monarch can not be brought to justice.
Queens of England and Russia
Both states are located on the same continent, therefore there have always been diplomatic relations between them.
The most associated with Russia were Elizabeth 1 and Victoria. The first conducted personal correspondence with Ivan the Terrible and was engaged in the development of the Moscow trading company.
Queen Victoria is known in the history of Russia as a carrier of hemophilia, which she gave to her great-grandson, Tsarevich Alexei.