Russian language lessons: phonetic analysis and its stages
The school curriculum, in addition to mastering the skills of literate writing and a coherent statement of thoughts, includes training in various kinds of parsing words, phrases and sentences. Each type has its own tasks and algorithm of action.
The concept of phonetic analysis
Phonetic analysis is an analysis of the sound envelope of a word. He gives an idea of how many syllables a word consists of, which of them is stressed, what is the ratio of sounds and letters in a word, what is their qualitative composition. Such an analysis is directly related to phonetics - a section devoted to the study of the sound structure of the language. Also, phonetic analysis implies an elementary possession of transcribing skills - recording the word according to the “how is heard” principle.
Principles of training and presentation
Phonetic analysis is systematically and in detail studied in grade 5. This topic comes as a summary of the entire section.By that time, schoolchildren already know about the system of vowels and consonants in the Russian language, they have an idea about the shock and unstressed positions of sound, the system of voiced and deaf consonants, sound, soft and hard, and the relationship of pairing and unpairedness between them. Also, competent phonetic analysis is impossible without an understanding of what iotated vowels are and when one letter denotes several sounds. All this information is not repeated on purpose. So that students do not forget the material, it should be regularly fixed in practice. Consequently, at least twice a week it is necessary to give general or individual tasks, which will necessarily include phonetic analysis. This concerns not only the 5th grade, but also all subsequent years of studying the Russian language. Therefore, the teacher should act purposefully, planning the educational process in its subject. And if fifth graders will practice with simple examples, then in the next classes the teacher should give them more difficult tasks. First, of course, there is a phonetic analysis of words. In grades 6-7, schoolchildren can analyze the alphanumeric shell of phrases.So, the skills of transcribing will be worked out, the algorithms of the operations performed will be polished. Children will learn to hear the word, its characteristic features. And in the senior level - 8-9 and the following classes - students can increasingly be offered to make a phonetic analysis of the sentence.
Specific Examples of Phonetic Analysis
Let's look at the phonetic analysis of the word "wind." It consists of two syllables, stress falls on the first letter "e". Transcribe the word, put down the stress. Transcription is in square brackets: [v'e'thir]. As you can see, we should immediately note the phonetic phenomena present in the word. In this case, the presence of soft sounds. Now, below the analyzed word, we draw a vertical line and write each letter in a column, and after it - a sound with a detailed characteristic:
- in - [in '] consonant, sonorous, pair, [f'], in this position is soft, pair [in];
- e - [e 'vowel, shock;
- t - [t '] consonant, always deaf, there is a sonorous couple [d'], soft, pair, [t];
- e - [and] vowel, unstressed;
- p - [p] consonant, sonorous, hard, pair, [p '].
Thus, the word consists of 5 letters, 5 sounds.This example demonstrated the peculiarities of writing a phonetic analysis.