Skepticism in philosophy: concept, principles, history, representatives
Skepticism is a philosophy thatprinciples is the opposite of dogmatism. Obviously, this direction of philosophical science was created in view of the fact that some ancient scholars have accumulated a lot of claims to the currents that already existed at that time.
One of the first representatives of skepticism,The empiricist, in his philosophical work, explained that in this direction, in essence, the basic tools of thinking are the comparison of the data of the mind and these feelings, and also the opposition of these data to each other. Skeptics questioned the very quality of thinking, especially the doubt about the existence and validity of dogmas - the truths, which must be taken for granted and should not require for themselves any evidence.
However, skepticism as a philosophical directionscience does not at all consider doubt as a fundamental principle - it uses it only as a polemical weapon against the supporters of dogmas. The philosophy of skepticism, however, professes such a principle as a phenomenon. In addition, one should clearly distinguish skepticism everyday (everyday), scientific and philosophical.
In everyday terms skepticism can be explained aspsychological state of a person, his situational uncertainty, doubt in something. A skeptic man always refrains from expressing categorical judgments.
Scientific skepticism is a clear and consistentbuilt opposition to those scientists who, in their judgments, did not rely on empirical evidence. In particular, this concerns axioms - theorems that do not require proof.
Skepticism in philosophy is a direction,followers of which, as already noted above, express doubts about the existence of reliable knowledge. With a moderate form of skepticism, it is limited only to the knowledge of facts and displays restraint in relation to all hypotheses and theories. For them, philosophy, including the one they follow, is something like science-like poetry, but not science in its pure form. It is with this connected famous statement: "Philosophy - this is not science!"
Skepticism in philosophy: how the direction developed
The history of skepticism is a decline,depletion of a gradual nature. This trend originated in ancient Greece, played an insignificant role in the Middle Ages, but was reborn in the era of the Reformation (at the time of the restoration of Greek philosophy), when skepticism degenerated into milder forms of the new philosophy, such as subjectivism and positivism.
Skepticism in philosophy: representatives
The founder of the Greek school of skeptics isPirron, who, according to some opinions, generally studied in India. In addition, antique skepticism as a response to metaphysical dogmatism is represented by such philosophers as Arkesilaus (middle academy) and the so-called "late" skeptics Agrippa, Sextus Empiricus, Enesidem. In particular, Enesidem once pointed out ten trails (principles) of skepticism. The first six are the difference between people, individual states, living beings, sense organs, positions, places, distances, phenomena and their connections. The last four principles are the mixed existence of the perceived object with others, relativity in general, dependence on a certain number of perceptions, dependence on laws, customs, education, religious and philosophical views.
The most important representatives of the skepticism of the Middle Ages and the New Times are D. Hume and M. Montel.
Skepticism in philosophy: criticism
Criticism of skepticism, in particular, wasLewis Vaughn and Theodore Schick, who wrote, since skeptics are not so sure that knowledge requires self-confidence, how can they know that this is really so. It is logical that they can not know this. This question gave a serious reason to doubt the assertion of skepticism that knowledge necessarily requires certainty. According to the laws of logic, skepticism can not only be doubted, but it can also be challenged as a whole.