Sorting slide: device, work technology. Railway infrastructure
An integral part of freight railwaystransportation is sorting work, in which frames are completed for sending to this or that direction. Stations on which the redistribution of goods is carried out are called sorting. In their work they use a lot of special devices, the main of which is a sorting slide. Let's find out what it is and how it functions.
Sorting slide is a structure,located on the territory of the railway station and intended for the formation or disbandment of trains of freight trains. In fact, it is a mound, on which the railway tracks are laid. The structure consists of three main sections: a sliding part, a hump and a drain part. On the hill the composition is pushed with the help of a locomotive. Then each car under the action of gravity independently rolls to the destination along the drain part, which is located on the slope. Between the rolling cars or trailers (several connected wagons) an interval is formed sufficient for the transfer of the arrows in accordance with the plan for the formation of the convoys. The rolling speed of the cars is regulated by braking positions, which are equipped with car retarders.
The peak of the hill is called its highest point. Usually its height ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 meters. Here, wagons or traps are sent to sub-roads to destinations. The height of the hill is called the difference between its peak and the calculated point of the most unfavorable for rolling down the subterranean path. The height is calculated in such a way as to ensure the passage of a car with poor running qualities under adverse environmental conditions to a design point that is taken with a margin at a distance of 50 m from the end of the braking position of the most difficult path. The hump is called the hump of the hill, from which the car or the trailer starts to move independently.
The sliding part is the zone between the lastTurnouts of the foothills of the receiving park and the top of the hill. This zone, as a rule, is equipped with an anticlean for the convenience of uncoupling the cars and stopping them. The trigger part, respectively, is the zone between the top of the hill and the beginning of the sorting park. In this case, the section of the road with the greatest steepness is called high-speed.
The mountain complexes can be either one-sided,so two-sided. The latter are usually used in very large sorting units, with a large amount of work in both directions. Previously, slides were built only on sites with a natural slope of the earth. Many of these slides are still exploited. Later began to build slides with an artificial slope.
The used ways of braking cars are alsomay differ. Everything depends on the point at which the sorting hill is located. The stations, which were built near the transport hubs, eventually found themselves within the city limits. Such sorting complexes are subject to special requirements. It is about the silent operation of retarders and switch gears, special rules for dissolution and limited access to the station's territory.
Types of sorting parks
The sorting park can be the same in length,Like other station parks, or shortened. Most shortened parks are common in America, where favorable terrain and long distances between stations allow the formation of extra long trains. Shortened compounds collected in one sorting park are connected on the routes of departure with other semi-compounds. However, there are cases when it is more expedient to design long sorting parks. Here everything depends on the specific region.
Sorting hills of the last generationprovide the possibility of local control elements such as arrows and signaling parks for receiving / sending, with the ability to verify all necessary closures and dependencies. Less common is the centralized management of the railway, the sorting station in particular.
Braking of trailers in the hilly area
The first braking of the trailer occurs in the hillyzone for the formation of intervals of succession. It is carried out by one or two TP (braking positions). The following braking - sighting, occurs in the park area, when the car reaches the destination point.
In addition to those known at the stations of JSC "Russianrailroads "of pincer-pressure retarders, and other systems for braking are used. For example, at stations located near residential areas, rails covered with rubber are used to extinguish the speed of trains. The frictional force that occurs when the metal wheel moves along the rubber cover is controlled by a retarder. The most perspective are the brake positions of the sorting roller, equipped with permanent magnets. They are most effective at high speed of movement of the trailer (more than 20 km / h).
Braking of traps in the park zone
In the park areas for braking cars ortraps set a certain number of point retarders, which provide quasi-continuous speed control. The most recognized at the moment are point hydraulic piston models of retarders. They are activated when the crest of the wheel runs over the retarder piston, mounted on the rail neck. If the rolling speed is exceeded (recorded with a special sensor), the excess kinetic energy is extinguished when the piston is moved down.
In Europe, widespreadhydraulic spiral moderator. When the car passes along it, the ridge of the wheel comes into contact with the spiral projection of the cylinder, the latter makes a turn, taking away part of the energy of the wheel. The resistance that a car retarder will have depends on how much the car's speed exceeds the norm.
Braking at stations with a natural gradient
At marshalling yards with a natural gradientspeed regulation usually occurs on the entire descent, and in the pre-park zone as well. The slides of the last generations are equipped with caravans, which are located directly inside the track and can be moved using automatically controlled cables. If necessary, the carloader can even bring the trailer to the wagons to which he must join. Such devices have found wide application at the railway stations of Munich, Zurich and Rotterdam.
In addition to devices for braking, sortingThe slides are also equipped with hydraulic accelerators. They, as a rule, are located in the park zone and are activated in case the trailer moves at a speed below the norm.
The first mountain systems
The first inclined way for the distribution of wagonswas built in Dresden in 1946. At that time in Europe, another method of disbanding trains was circulated - with turning circles. In 1858 at the station of Leipzig the first semblance of a mountainous system was built. In the form in which the sorting roller works today, it was first built in 1863 at the French station Ter Nor.
The first counteract
In 1876, at the German station Shpeldorf wasThe first sorting separate point was built with an anti-slope on the sliding part and an intermediate platform. Previously, slides were built on a natural slope, without an anticlean. In 1891, the division of the sorting park into bundles (groups of paths) began to be applied. Brake shoes were used instead of brake devices. These simple devices to this day can be found at stations with a natural bias.
The first retarder
In the twenties, centuries passed in Europe and Americabegan to use rail car retarder. In 1923 at the European station Hamm launched a mechanized complex of four hydraulic retarders. Thanks to the mechanisms of electromechanical centralization that appeared around the same time, it became possible to carry out remote control of the railway on the section of the sorting hump. Somewhat later, the first electric devices were created, storing the order of passing the cars. In accordance with the established task, they independently regulated the beam drive gear.
In 1955, at the Chicago station Kirk launchedthe first managed complex. By 1970, most of the major stations were fully automated sorting hills. A little later they started using a radio channel to control locomotives, which allowed them to increase their productivity.
In the second half of the twentieth century appearedtendency to the predominance of small cargo shipments. Due to increased competition between rail and other types of freight transport, container transportations have become topical, which allow minimizing the costs of transhipment and taking advantage of each mode of transport. In order to reload containers from railway wagons to road and sea transport, special platforms with crane mechanisms were equipped. With the development of container shipments, many marshalling yards in Europe have transferred their functions to parks, which can overload containers from wagons not only to sea and road transport, but also to other trains.
Complex MSR 32
Siemens developed for the construction andmodernization of railway sorting stations special complex MSR 32. It depends on the type and capacity of the required hill, as well as its profile and local conditions, creates a model that is tested with the help of electronic computers. The model shows where it is most expedient to locate speed sensors, weight gauges, gauges of detachment dimensions, braking positions and other elements of the sorting station.
The system adapts to any requirementscustomer with a modular device. It is introduced into the slides with different profiles, braking concepts and processing abilities. For example, in Zurich, the hill, equipped with the MSR 32 system, processes 330 wagons per hour. The locomotive is controlled by radio. In Vienna, such a separate point has a capacity of 320 wagons per hour. The locomotive of this hill works on radio control. The system provides on all slides a continuous exchange of information with dispatch centers. The operator of the sorting roller must only make sure that everything is working properly. The first station of the former USSR, where Siemens installed its technology, was the Vaidotai station in Lithuania. Gradually MSR 32 technology is spreading around the world. At the stations of JSC "Russian Railways" they are also tested.