The Book of the Dead

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

The Ancient Egyptian “Book of the Dead” is not a book about death. This is a book about life conquering death. Paradoxically, but such a spectacular name, which has become almost as widespread a symbol of ancient Egypt as the pyramids, the mummies and the papyrus, does not at all correspond to the content and idea of ​​the work itself. Moreover, it is exactly the opposite of its true name. “The Book of the Dead” is a tracing from the Arab Kitab al-Mayyit (“The Book of the Dead Man”). With this term, the present Egyptians designated papyrus scrolls with mysterious letters and drawings, which they found together with the mummies of their distant ancestors, without in any way extending it to the content of the text, which they, of course, did not know.

Long ago, Ancient Egypt was completely wrong for Europeans to be a country of death in which people who worshiped it lived and were preparing to die all their lives. Apparently, therefore, the name “Book of the Dead” is so strongly associated with these funerary texts, although Egyptologists are well aware that it is more than conditional.The original title of the work was “Er ni peret uh dick” - “Sayings of output per day”. It reflects the main essence of this wonderful text: to help the deceased pass through all the dangers of the afterlife, to go through the posthumous trial and, together with the sunny bark of the god Ra, to return to earth again, that is, revive, resurrect, as the Egyptians said. To conquer death, in order to lead already then a spiritual-sensual existence in a rejuvenated, beautiful, ageless body on an eternally beautiful fertile land surrounded by our loved ones.

This is a book about overcoming death, about defeating it and at the same time how to do it ...

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

The history of the Book of the Dead dates back to infinitely remote times, when primitive religious ideas of the ancient inhabitants of the Nile Valley began to take shape in an increasingly complicated cult of local gods and a burial ritual that took shape in its main features. Apparently, even before the unification of Egypt into one state, in the pre-alphabet period, a collection of requiem formulas began to take shape, much later, with the pharaohs of the 5th-6th dynasties (c. 2355 BC), the already modest the size of the royal pyramids (the famous grand pyramids at Giza are “silent”).The first time it happened at the pharaoh Unise, already at the end of the Old Kingdom.

At the end of the last century, these inscriptions were discovered by the eminent French Egyptologist G. Maspero and called them the “Pyramid Texts”. This work, apparently, was a record of the funeral ritual and concerned exclusively the royal person, which naturally does not mean that all the other inhabitants of Egypt did not have any idea at all of the after-death existence. However, in the tombs of the necropolis of the Old Kingdom of texts relating to the after-death of the “simple” dead, no. So, speaking of the era of the Old Kingdom, we can only judge about the posthumous existence of Pharaoh, who was expected by the coming before the gods and the entry into their host. After death, he flew up to heaven and there, in an infinite stellar space, sailed along with the sun god Ra in the Rook of Million Years. “Your wings grow like those of a falcon, you are wide-chested, like a hawk, which is watched in the evening after it has crossed the sky”; “Flying is flying. He flew away from you, people, because he does not belong to the Earth, he belongs to the sky ... "

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

In The Pyramid Texts, as the remarkable Russian scientist B. A. writes.Turaev, “... the first link of that uninterrupted chain of funeral magical monuments was found, which stretches throughout the Egyptian pagan (partly Christian) civilization and the most famous representative of which until [the discovery of the Pyramid Texts” M.H.] was discovered a collection called the Book of the Dead in science ... For those who know this kind of work from other nations, here you will find familiar features: conspiracies whose effectiveness is based on faith in the power of a word, by virtue of knowing the names of the creatures with whom Noah wealth, references to precedents in the history of the gods, and as a consequence - allusions to myths, often incomprehensible, the use of the temple ritual texts for us as a conspiracy, sometimes with a note attesting to the power of this saying in the mouth of a knowledgeable and properly pronouncing it. Thus, this rich treasury contains the cries and formulas that accompany the requiem rituals — spells against demons, reptiles, and other enemies of the deceased king, prayers and pieces of myths that served the same magical goals. All of this is written in archaic language and writing, archaic spelling,adapted for magical purposes and avoiding the use of hieroglyphs depicting living beings that can harm the deceased, even from the walls of the inscription. The green color of hieroglyphs, the color of resurrection, already by appearance indicates that this ancient literary monument of mankind is at the same time the most ancient verbal protest against death and a means of verbal struggle with it - a struggle that was used to help the monumental struggle that was expressed so far in the construction of colossal royal tombs devoid of any inscriptions or images "(B. A. Turaev" Egyptian literature ". T. I. M. 1920, pp. 36-37).

With the completion of the Old Kingdom, at the end of the third millennium BC. e., funerary literature undergoes significant changes. Now not only Pharaoh had requiem texts, going to the kingdom of the gods: a similar fate awaited everyone. Already during the last dynasties of the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts began to leave the burial chambers of the all Egyptian rulers and appear on the inner and outer walls of rectangular wooden sarcophagi of their subjects. In many ways, these are the same “Pyramid Texts”, but still they are so different from them that they clearly represent a new stage in the development of the requiem literature.In the “Sarcophagus Texts” (as they are called in the scientific literature), the solar cult associated with the deified pharaoh is intertwined with the chthonic (earthly); The afterworld is located in a very special place in the space of the universe, where Ra goes with his retinue every night to fight the forces of darkness. Here, as in the Pyramid Texts, there are many magical formulas and spells, references to ancient myths (already related to Osiris) and liturgical recitatives. All this is divided into separate “sayings”, or chapters, which have their own names, many of which are later included in the “Book of the Dead”. On the sarcophagus of the XIIth dynasty (c. 1991 BC) another text appears on the journey beyond the grave and related by language to the era of the Old Kingdom. This is the famous “Book of Two Paths”, created to ease the way to the Fields of Khotei (Fields of the World) - fields of eternal bliss, where wheat is human-sized, where there are no crop failures and hunger, where the deceased are in endless bliss under the shadow of Naunet - the mysterious sky of the afterlife kingdom.

It is in the "Book of the Two Paths" that images of text illustrating the text that are so important in the "Book of the Dead" first appear. B.A.Turaev writes about the “Book of Two Ways” as follows: “This is an illustrated vade mecum of the deceased, making it easier for him to travel over land and water to the afterlife and consisting of a map of the latter and texts that fall into 16“ chapters ”(collection of“ sayings ”) in three groups. The first group begins with an appeal to some deity giving a pass for traveling through the necropolis of Sokar Ra-Seta, where the deceased eases the sufferings of Osiris, who is then glorified. The wandering man then speaks of his victory over the enemy, which he holds in his claws, like a lion. All this ends with the words: “This book was under the sandals of Thoth. The end of it ”... The second group talks about the pilgrimage of the deceased to various Egyptian shrines, apparently transferred to another world. He enters into Heliopolis, and Buto, and in the "House of Life of Abydos" and "on the pure land of the Nile"; everywhere sees local shrines and landmarks. The third group actually represents the "Book of two ways." After the image of the doors to these paths, a map is given, divided to the full length by a red stripe depicting the “sea of ​​fire”: from above it is the “waterway” and below it is the overland. The first lead first along the lake of fire; The text warns at a crossroads near the fiery sea: “do not go to it”.On land, the soul passes through dams guarded by guards, in front of which you have to read the “maxim of passage” or impersonate gods for free passes. Both ways converge, it seems, at Abydos "(ibid., P. 60 - 61). As can be seen from the above description, the attainment of places of eternal bliss was not easy and sometimes deadly, and it became almost impossible without an accurate knowledge of the topography of the afterlife and the presentation of its inhabitants.

Without an accurate map and a detailed image it was impossible to go on the road along two paths of the kingdom of the dead. Henceforth, the requiem literature was accompanied by drawings that facilitated this risky journey and, with time, became an independent type of Egyptian graphics - an integral part of the papyri "Book of the Dead."

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

With the end of the Middle Kingdom, the end of the victorious struggle with the Hyksos oppressors and the formation of the “empire”, a new period in the development of religious literature begins. At this time, the requiem texts recorded on papyrus become the property of almost all segments of the population. As in the previous epoch, its main collection of funerary texts is composed,replacing the "Sarcophagus Texts" of the Middle Kingdom. Already at the very end, the first papyrus scrolls appear, and from the XVIIIth dynasty (c. 1552 BC) they spread everywhere. "From this time on, the ... religious texts concerning the underworld were gathered together and recorded in the form we now know as the Book of the Dead, and every Egyptian who was sufficiently substantial to afford to pay the scribe even an incomplete list of sacred texts, took a papyrus scroll with him to the grave, which could be a short excerpt, containing no more than the most necessary chapters, or could be an impressive work reaching hundreds or more feet of length and containing all the precautions The wisdom of the Egyptian scribe knew against the dangers of the dark world of Duat [the afterlife - M. Ch.]. That is why nine out of every ten Egyptian papyruses are funeral papyruses, and why nine out of every ten funeral papyruses are copies of what we know as the “Book of the Dead,” while others are copies of the later variations and abbreviations of this main book, the Book of the Gates, “The Book of Breath,” “The Book of the Knowledge of What Is in the Underworld,” and so on (J. Baikie, “Egyptian Papyri and Papyrus-hunting”. NY 1971, p. 34 - 35).

Of course, making papyrus scrolls required much less time and money than painting bulky wooden boxes. It should also be remembered that in the era of the New Kingdom, anthropoid sarcophagi are becoming common, repeating the shape of the human body and unsuitable for placing long inscriptions. The new papyrus collection was made almost “on stream”, leaving free space for the name of the buyer. This is done the vast majority of scrolls.

The Book of the Dead was not just a copy of the Sarcophagus Texts. As the latter, having included fragments of the Pyramid Texts, remained an independent work, so this collection, which absorbed parts of both, became a different work from them. "The Book of the Dead" was the result of all the long development of Egyptian religious literature. This, the third stage of its existence, corresponding to the era of the New Kingdom (1580 - 1085 BC), shows what a difficult path theological thought has taken over the long hundreds of years. Osiris, the chthonic deity, the Good God, the wise ruler of the kingdom of the dead, the underground sun,the final death court and the restoring justice, whose home is located right on the fields of Yalu (Fields of the Reed), where the deceased work.

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

In the Book of the Dead, it is no longer possible to find such representations as the Cannibal hymn of the Pyramid Texts, where the deceased king devours the gods; or sayings, which describes what horror he instils in them: "The earth trembles, the sky trembles and the gods tremble when this Pepi right-wing rises." Here the relationship with the gods is quite different. In the Book of the Dead, gods are impartial judges, before whom the deceased will have to answer about his earthly affairs. You can, however, try to alleviate their fate with the help of magic spells; one can memorize (or read in a scroll) the names of all forty-two gods with whom to deal, and thereby gain power over them; you can, in the end, put a scarab on your heart so that it keeps silent about the owner's bad deeds when the time comes to answer for everything. But, although the “Book of the Dead” seems to guarantee a happy conclusion of the trial, the Egyptians apparently did not have complete confidence in this. What else will show the divine scales,on which the heart of the deceased is weighed in the face of the god Thoth, who wrote the Book of the Dead itself and invented all its spells? For the righteous, the chances of eternal bliss are clearly greater. It is not by chance that the chapters of the “Crown of Justification” and the so-called “negative confession” appear in the collection, in which the deceased swears that he did not do such and such bad deeds: a kind of moral code of the ancient Egyptians of the New Kingdom era.

You can often hear that the ancient Egyptians did not create any kind of philosophy. Indeed, we will not find anything similar to the teachings of ancient philosophers in Egypt. But this does not mean at all that the Egyptians, for whom their cosmogony was in fact philosophy, did not have any orderly understanding of the world around them and the phenomena that filled it. The ancient Egyptian lived in a world in which the existing order of things was established in immemorial times of creation and since then has not changed, obeying the exact and immutable law. His language reflected a form of thinking in which the relations of people and objects were expressed not so clearly as we have.In this language there was no verb in our understanding of it, and consequently, there was no grammatical tense. The Egyptians seemed to perceive time in the same way as, apparently, children perceive it: as a single stream, an endless chain of immutability.

It seems that the Egyptian world was filled with countless different phenomena and actions, and the person did not commit these actions as much as he was at each particular moment as if a characteristic of this action. This will be clearer if we recall that the concept of personality among the Egyptians was also very different from ours. After all, the Egyptians were the “hema” of their king, that is, his “expression”, “manifestation”, his part, just as the numerous gods were parts of the body of the single deity that gave birth to them.

Thus it turns out that all the Egyptians together made up the body of their state. In Egyptian, the word actually Egypt, that is, the valley of the Nile, and which we quite accurately translate as “Motherland”, literally means “inside”. That is, the Egyptian state is the ideal place where everything in nature is in the closest and well-defined relationship.The connection of the world of gods and the world of people is carried out through Pharaoh - a creature of a dual nature, immediately God and man. Thus, practically all normal functioning of the state depends on the tsar, the prosperity of the country and all those who live in it depend on its strength and health. It can be said that the pharaoh is the focal point of the power, power and vitality of the state. Pharaoh is the bearer of absolute power, but also of colossal duties. Without his ritual actions, the Nile flood will not occur, and this is a national catastrophe; if Pharaoh does not hold the first furrow at the start of field work, the land will not be fertilized and the country will remain without food. Therefore, when the Egyptians of the whole country piled a stone on a stone, creating giant pyramids, it is impossible to say that this was only a manifestation of ruthless "Eastern despotism." Creating a new shell, protection to their king, they thereby primarily ensured the eternal existence and prosperity of their country.

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

The universe of the ancient Egyptians consisted of five parts: sky, earth, water, Duat (otherworldly), mountains. All this was in unity, but also in a certain opposition.The pairwise opposition of all that exists according to the principle: right - left, up - down, male - female is traced in the ancient Egyptian picture of the world, characteristic of mythological thinking. But perhaps nowhere has the dualism of this world been so clearly manifested.

How the universe came about, man was also well aware of himself, although in Egypt there was no single theory of the origin of the world, gods and people. Each major theological school had its own cosmogony and theogony, where the honor of creating the universe was attributed to different deities; each school considered the creator of the god worshiped in this religious center. The methods of creation were also different; Perhaps the only thing that unites all the various concepts is the idea that chaos existed at the beginning of time, transformed into an orderly universe, living according to well-defined laws.

So man is the creation of God; his manifestation and image lives in henu - the body of the country, where everything exists in the established order of things, supported by "the Son of God in his flesh." The Egyptian himself apparently perceived himself as a combination of several entities: the body, the Ba (soul), the name,shadow and ka (double). The life and health of a person depended on the correct and harmonious interaction of these entities. When death came, all these substances separated from each other and began to lead a virtually independent existence, and Ah took the place of a single person - not a completely clear category, perhaps to some extent corresponding to our concept of “spirit”. After death, as we already know, hard tests in the next world awaited the deceased.

The Otherworld - Duat was one of the parts of the universe and it was located, as is clear from the very "set" of these parts, not in the sky, not on the Earth, not in the water and not on the mountains. This is precisely another world that exists parallel to the earthly world. But these two worlds are inextricably linked. The sun god leaves for Duat for the night, the dead go there too. Judging by some signs, our world and the Duat intersect at some particularly sacred points. Judging by the topography of the Duat, he belongs to such holy places as Abydos, Heliopolis, Pe and Depa. But they are the real cities of our world. This picture is often present in a variety of mythologies.Temples were built in these holy places, pilgrims went there, magnificent celebrations and ceremonies were held there, oracles were there.

Like so many other nations, the Egyptians had confidence that some events in the other world could be influenced from here. You can, for example, somehow influence the fate of the deceased or affect the higher forces acting "from there." For these purposes, resorted to magic.

The magic of the ancient Egyptians is one of the most attractive phenomena for modern admirers of mysticism and the secret knowledge of antiquity, but in fact it is very close to the actions performed by shamans, whose activities are mainly aimed at influencing the otherworldly forces of the other world. The rites performed here have the results "there." Only very few sorcerers know how to act magically directly in this world. This is why the “Books of the Dead” spells have a result in the Duat and do not work here. But the deceased can also influence our lives from the next world. It has reached us a lot of letters addressed to those who read, with requests to help with something or with calls not to harm the living.

A different world of the Egyptians in general corresponds to the global notions of such places.The language of myth and the whole system of mythological thinking demonstrate many fundamental differences between our perception of space and the archaic. So, for example, the mythical space is inadequately geometric, although in form it is as structurally organized as the latter. The Duat is a coiled-up space that is many times greater than Egypt. It can be assumed that it has two levels: Fields of the Hotel, corresponding to the space from Thebes to Heliopolis, where the deceased falls when he has weighed his heart on the scales, i.e., the Egyptian paradise; and a space crowded with the nightmarish abodes of demons and ruthless monsters, through which the deceased must pass to reach the Hall of Two Truths. From our point of view of the perception of space, all these horrors must be in Amenti (literally “the West” - the first region of the Duat, where the post-mortem court is decided). The Coptic Christians, who loved to describe the horrors of hell, by the word "Amenti" meant exactly hell. The demons living in Duat are subject to Osiris.

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

But let us return to the Egyptian ideas about their posthumous existence, as reflected in the Book of the Dead.In order for it to last forever, it was necessary to ensure the life and prosperity of all “self-determined” entities. The end result of all the posthumous evolution was to be the resurrection of the deceased. This is a very complex notion, revealing a lot similar to Christianity. Death for the Egyptians was an enemy, ruthless and insidious. But, like the Christians, it is victorious. "Christ rose from the dead, trampling down death on death, and bestowing existence on those in the tombs." The first of the Egyptians was the death of Osiris. After going through the martyr's death, he was resurrected and seated on a throne in the Hall of Two Truths, taking the judgment of the dead. From now on, the Egyptians were able to win death.

After the terrible judgment of Christians, eternal life awaits in a resurrected, transfigured body, filled with the Spirit of God. The body of the Egyptian, too, will be resurrected and transformed when all human beings come together again. But the Egyptians believed that the body should be protected from corruption by this deadline or, in extreme cases, should be replaced with another shell - a statue or an image. After the resurrection, the victory over death, a person will have a wonderful spiritual and sensual existence, when there will be no suffering and hardship and time will not have power over people.But it was wrong to assume (as is sometimes done) that magic actions and spells guarantee a person eternal life. Not at all! They are intended only to help avoid evil wiles from the side of hostile forces (after all, Christians also perform certain actions with the same purpose), but the final result depends on how a person lived his earthly life.

Bardo Todol (Tibetan “Book of the Dead”), perhaps the most vividly describing the diving into the ocean of archetypes at the moment of the borderline between life and death, paints more and more monstrous pictures of truly hellish torment and ultimately hints that all this is yours same generation. That is, again we are confronted with the idea that in the next world we will reap the benefits of what we have sown on Earth. During the post-mortem court, the late Egyptian swears of the failure of forty-two sins. But, despite all the magic, the verdict will be acquittal if the deceased speaks the truth. Otherwise, he will have to experience the same feelings as the next one by the Tibetan bardo. But the latter will result in a lower reincarnation, while the Egyptian has either eternal bliss or complete destruction ahead.Reincarnation "Perth uh dick" does not know. What is often perceived by us as a transmigration of the soul is, in fact, a magical opportunity to acquire any desired appearance.

Bardo Todol is a very dark book. Strictly speaking, its main goal is to help the dying person avoid new incarnations and achieve nirvana (eternal bliss). As you progress through the various bardos, he is constantly offered several options for deciding his destiny and suggests the best of them. But each time it is assumed that the dying could not take advantage of it, and a new choice immediately opens up before him, but under even worse conditions. It can be said that the principle: “Hope for the best - count on the worst” is applied in “Bardo Todol”. The only question is what is understood here as the best.

Unlike the Tibetan “Book of the Dead”, “Peret em Dick” pursues a completely opposite goal: to remain itself, to attain eternal life and to taste the peaceful happiness of contemplating the “face of the day” in the presence of the great God and meeting relatives in another world, where all adversities already behind. "The Book of the Dead" leaves a person in the arms of his loved ones in the fragrant gardens of Paul Hohen,and for her often vague sayings and magical formulas the same aspirations are read as those who profess the petition of sins, the resurrection of the body, eternal life.

In 1920, B. A. Turaev wrote: “... there is no need to talk about the translation of the Book of the Dead into new languages ​​- in the better, more ancient manuscripts, its texts are distorted and overflowing with incomprehensible places. Despite the fact that hardly any other monument of world literature has reached us in such an overwhelming number of lists from different eras, there is no more unpleasant and hopelessness difficult for the Egyptologist than this collection ... because of the infinite number of mysterious hints, mystical language and, especially , illiteracy distorted text. For us, this is probably a truly strange work: a conglomeration of very practical sayings that are multi-temporal in origin, vague dialogues, magic spells and texts that are amazing in their figurative and artistic power, shaking their spiritual, philosophical and ethical insight. For the Egyptians, going to the kingdom of shadows, the fragile papyrus scroll was almost the only real tangible hope to pass unharmed through a nightmarish, terrifying,the world inhabited by monsters is the world of snakes, scorpions, ghosts, insurmountable obstacles, lakes of flame and magical crystals, a world dating back to infinitely distant times of primitive rituals and gloomy foggy fragment that has been preserved for thousands of years. For the Egyptians, their magic scroll was a holy book, a divine revelation given to people, as a representation that flashed with a distant gleam in the tablets of Moses.

Without an idea of ​​what the “Book of the Dead” was for the ancient Egyptians, one cannot grasp the essence and spirit of their amazing culture. Too many of their ideas about being and world order fell into it. Perhaps those who called the “Book of the Dead” the Bible of Ancient Egypt are not so wrong.

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

Now - about the text itself. The Book of the Dead is a collection of expressions of various purposes, often referred to in literature as chapters. They can be divided into three categories: prayers and hymns to various gods, magic spells and recordings of the burial ritual (explanations on how to set up the burial bed, how to furnish the burial chamber, etc.). The order and number of sayings in different lists were different.Moreover, the customer's solvency played an important role here. The total number of sayings found in different copies of The Book of the Dead is 193, but there seems to be no complete chapter collection (in any case, this has not yet been discovered). Everyone was free to choose what he considered necessary, in accordance with his beliefs and abilities. Therefore, in some copies we find dozens of chapters, and in others - units. There was also a text called “Peret uh dick in one chapter,” which could replace all others if necessary. The current numbering of chapters was proposed by the German Egyptologist of the last century R. Lepsius on the basis of a copy of the Book of the Dead published by him of a rather late Ptolemaic era (305 - 30 BC), when the order of sentences was already unified. Although the overwhelming number of sayings have titles, they do not always correspond to the content of the text itself; first of all it refers to spells. It is difficult to talk about the logical structure of each scroll, but if you look at the entire collection as a whole, it becomes more noticeable. Apparently, according to this principle, the scribes of the Saissian era (664 - 525 BC) acted.e.), making up your own text.

The content of the Book of the Dead can be divided into four parts (as the French Egyptologist A. Moret did): 1) Chapters 1–16: the procession of the funeral procession to the necropolis; prayers for “going out to the day”; hymns to the sun and osiris. 2) Chapters 17–63: “going out on the day” and the revival of the deceased; his victory over the forces of darkness; powerless enemies; power of the deceased over the elements. 3) Chapters 64–129: “going out into the day” - the transformation of the deceased into a deity; her introduction to the solar boat; knowledge of equal sacraments; return to the tomb; next court. 4) Chapters 130 - 162: glorification of the deceased - texts intended to be read during the year (on certain holidays, on the days of offering gifts to the dead) and intended to secure the mummy. This is the content of the actual “Peret em Dick”; before the 163rd chapter is the title: “Introduced from another book in addition to Peret em Kheru, and then 30 more chapters follow.

The colossal role was played by the drawings (often - of the highest level of craftsmanship), placed together with the text: the first book example in history. So the content received not only a verbal, but also a graphic expression. Egyptians, for whom all sorts of images in general were of paramount importance,these drawings seemed so important that very often, with a lack of space on the lisses, they preferred not to add text, but to fit the illustration; and in the time of the 21st dynasty (c. 1070 - 945 BC), even copies of the Book of the Dead, consisting of some drawings, appeared.

The nature of the Egyptian patterned writing is such that the images on the pages of the "Book of the Dead" were not only considered by the Egyptians, but read almost as much as the text. In this regard, the illustrations for the collection were more informative for contemporaries than for us. The dangerous wanderings of the deceased, the mysterious inhabitants of the afterlife, the magical actions of the characters and the strange objects with which they operate - all this comes to life on papyrus sheets, and we see (literally: it's a scroll) an amazing world created by thousands of years of spiritual quest, such fantastic for us and so terrible and understandable for the ancient inhabitants of Egypt.

The Book of the Dead Dead ”,“ The Book, Egyptians, kingdom, more, “Books, Egyptians, Pyramids”, together, Ancient, very, ancient, gods, life, this, when, collection, deceased, before, often

Here you can read this book in the translation of A. Shaposhnikov -

The author of the translation from ancient Egyptian, introduction and commentary M. A. Chegodaev. (employee of the Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS),,,
And here are some more interesting literary monuments of history: for example, the Strangest Literary Anomaly - the book Codex Seraphinianus, and here the Secret of the Book of Veles and the Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World - Voynich Manuscript (54Mb).

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