The history of Azerbaijan since ancient times
The Caucasus, or rather its southern part, has a rich thousand-year history and is even considered one of those places where civilization originated. And it is not surprising, because the richest nature and climatic conditions of this region have long attracted people. Today, in the Caucasus, there are people of different nationalities who profess different religions. Each of the states located there has its own unique history. This material will briefly outline the history of Azerbaijan - everything from the very beginning up to our days.
Cradle of Civilizations
On the territory of modern Azerbaijan, the first people appeared in the Stone Age. In one of the caves, located in the lands of Karabakh, researchers found various stone tools: arrowheads, knives, axes, including those intended for processing wood and cutting carcasses. The jaw of a Neanderthal was also found there, and the age of the drawings left by some artist is 10 thousand years.
Perhaps, the history of Azerbaijan begins with the primitive communal system. Since ancient times, people lived here. Not far from Mount Killidag, remains of ancient settlements have been excavated. It is known that primitive people who lived on this land, engaged in hunting, as well as cattle breeding and farming.
Lands of Azerbaijan BC
Primitive people who lived in the territory of modern Azerbaijan improved their skills. Over time, they learned to process copper, and in the IV millennium BC. er and iron. More sophisticated tools made it possible to increase its productivity, which ultimately led to the stratification of society and the decline of the primitive-communal system. Gradually, new tribes were formed, among which were the lullu-bei, manei, the kutis, the Albanians, and others.
Where does the history of Azerbaijan as a state originate from? At the beginning of I millennium BC. er in these lands, the state of Manna was formed, which then became part of the more powerful Mussels. However, at that time, many wars of conquest were waged on this territory - Scythians and Cimmerians, and then the Persians and Macedonians invaded here.
Atropatena and Albania Caucasian
Once in the IV century BC. er Alexander of Macedon defeated the Persian troops, within the boundaries of modern South Azerbaijan, a new state emerged - Atropatena with Gazaq as its capital. It was a fairly developed country, with writing and monetary relations, in which the “cult of fire” or Zoroastrianism prevailed. Atropatena existed until 150 AD er By the way, the appearance of the toponym Azerbaijan is associated with the name of this state.Approximately simultaneously with the emergence of Atropatena to the north of this country, the Caucasian Albania state is formed, the capital of which was the city of Kabala, whose ruins are in the territory of the Gabala region of the Azerbaijan Republic. The population of this country consists of the tribes of the Albanians, Legs and Udis. Of course, the ancient history of Azerbaijan originates from these countries.
In Caucasian Albania, Christianity becomes the main religion, there is also writing and has its own alphabet, and the lands of this country are exceptionally fertile. Residents of Caucasian Albania are successfully engaged in farming, the craft is flourishing.Examples of products made by Albanian artisans were found during excavations in Mingechevir.
VII-XII centuries. Invasions of Arabs and Seljuk Turks
The history of Azerbaijan consists of many conquering raids to which these lands have been subjected for centuries. Thus, in the VII century, the Arab Caliphate invaded Transcaucasia, which resulted in the spread of Islam to these lands. The peasant uprising that took place in 816, which lasted 20 years, was suppressed, after which the states that existed at that time split into many feudal principalities. Among them, the state of Shirvan, located in the north-east of Azerbaijan, later played a special role.
In the middle of the 11th century, Seljuk Turks came to the region, who managed to subdue most of the territories of today's Azerbaijan. Nomadic conquerors caused serious damage to agriculture flourishing here, but over time they themselves went into a settled way of life. On the basis of the Turkic language, mixed with the language of the local population, the Azerbaijani language was subsequently formed.
As a result of the struggle waged by the local population against foreign invaders, in the XII century the Turks were practically able to drive out of the region.These victories created prerequisites for strengthening statehood and further socio-economic progress. Agriculture and handicraft flourish more than ever, in addition to this marked a noticeable development in the field of science and culture. Perhaps, the history of the creation of Azerbaijan originates precisely in this period, when fragmented principalities unite under the leadership of Atebekov of Azerbaijan.
XIII - XVI centuries. Mongol invasion. Fight for dominance in the Caucasus
The troubles of the ancestors of modern Azerbaijanis do not end with the departure of the Turks - at the beginning of the XIII century, the invasion of the Mongol horde begins. The conquerors destroyed many prosperous cities, destroyed the irrigation network of the region. Their presence here led to the suspension of the region’s development for almost two centuries. Azerbaijan of that time is part of the Mongolian state of the Hulagids. The revival of the region falls on the XIV century, when, finally, the state of the Hulagides is falling apart. In the same period, diplomatic relations were established between Shirvan and Russia.
In the second half of the 15th century, the struggle for supremacy in the region intensified.And at the beginning of the 16th century, the Safavid dynasty seized power in Shirvan, as a result of which the Safavid state was founded, which subsequently had a significant influence on Azerbaijan. The history of the country during this period was marked by the rapid development of science, culture and, in particular, literature.
The end of the XVI - the first half of the XIX centuries. Section of Azerbaijan
The end of the 16th century, like the whole history of Azerbaijan, was marked by new upheavals associated with the struggle between Turkey and the Safavid state for the right to dominate in the Caucasus. In the 18th century, the rule of Iran was established in Azerbaijan, ending in connection with the beginning of anti-feudal demonstrations that led to the assassination of Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran. After that, over a dozen khanates are being formed on the lands of Azerbaijan, whose independence continues to threaten Iran and Turkey. The rulers of some khanates make a decision to seek support from Russia.
As a result of the Russian-Iranian wars of the first half of the XIX century, Azerbaijan again lost its independence and was divided into two parts. Accordingly, the northern part was ceded to Russia, and the southern - to Iran.
The second half of XIX - early XX centuries. Azerbaijan within Russia
In the second half of the XIX century, the country began a rapid growth in oil production. However, it has been mined here since time immemorial. In 1893, the active construction of railways began, which already by 1890 connected Azerbaijan with Russia. Industrial progress, as well as the integration of Azerbaijan into the Russian economy and the reforms that followed, give a positive result. Also, there is a significant infusion of money into the economy of the country, including Western ones.
The history of Azerbaijan as part of Russia also contains many interesting facts. At the turn of the century, the first Social Democratic circles were created in Baku. The proletariat of the capital takes part in various strikes and strikes arising from the plight of the Azerbaijani people, aggravated by the outbreak of the First World War.
Azerbaijan within the USSR
As a result of the revolutions of 1917, the struggle for Azerbaijan begins again. The history of the emergence of an independent state in its present form begins here. In the spring of next year, an independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was proclaimed here, whose supremacy refused to recognize Nagorno-Karabakh.Established in Azerbaijan in 1920, the Soviet government put an end to disagreements.
Along with all other peoples living on the territory of the USSR, the Azerbaijani people took part in the Great Patriotic War. The country produced a significant amount of ammunition and fuel for the Soviet army. Over hundreds of Azerbaijani soldiers were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
In 1991, in connection with the collapse of the USSR, Azerbaijan finally gained independence. The authorities of the newly created state took the course to build a democratic society. A multinational country is Azerbaijan. The history of the state, in which for centuries people of different nationalities got along, perhaps, is just beginning.
It only remains to add that the traditional features of the Azerbaijani people since ancient times have always been hospitality, respect for elders, tolerance and peacefulness.