What are the proposals for the purpose of expression and intonation? Types of proposals for the purpose of the statement
In order to correctly read the sentence, correctly understand its meaning and correctly arrange it, you need to understand what sentences on the goal of the statement are. It is also very important to be able to determine their species. What are the proposals for the purpose of the statement? In Russian, there are several classifications of these syntactic units, including with regard to the purpose of the utterance, as well as the specifics of pronunciation.
Types of proposals for the purpose of expression and intonation
We clarify that intonation implies an emotional design of the sentence. According to the purpose of the statement sentences are:
In turn, any of them can be either exclamatory or non-exclamatory - depending on the intonation with which the speaker pronounces it (with calm or emotional).
The most common sentences on the purpose of a statement are, of course, narrative. Their task is to communicate information that can either be approved or denied.
A narrative sentence expresses a finished thought transmitted by means of a special intonation: the main thing from a logical point of view is that the word is distinguished by a voice, and at the end of the phrase the tone is lowered, it becomes calmer.
There is no need to go far for examples of narrative sentences - they are at every step: “Mom bought bread”, “Spring came and brought warmth with it”, “Mitya has the best grade in the classroom!”.
Suggestions for the purpose of statements are also interrogative. Their semantic task is to convey a question. Questions may be different, on which subspecies of this type of sentences depend. Depending on the purpose of the question and the nature of the proposed response, the following are distinguished:
- General interrogative sentences - their task is to obtain confirmation or denial of any information. The answer to this type of question can only be "yes" or "no." For example: "Vasily was at the institute today?"Or: "Chrysanthemums are blooming in that garden?"
- Particularly interrogative - aimed at obtaining new information about the person, the circumstances of the action, the characteristics of objects and subjects, etc. There are many examples: “What time do we need to leave the house?”, “Who is on duty today?”, “When will the real winter begin ?
Interrogative sentences are of different kinds in nature. It:
- Actually interrogative - suggest the answer is mandatory. The purpose of the questioner is to find out information completely unknown to him. For example: "How old is your grandmother?", "Where does this tram go?".
- Interrogative-affirmative - require confirmation of information that is already in the question. For example: "Did you not know this?", "He did not want to hurt her?"
- Interrogative-negative - they express the negation of the thought contained in the question. For example: "Is it possible to fall asleep when such a night ?!", "That's why I got involved in this story?".
- Interrogative-incentive - contain the urge to any action, enclosed in the form of a question. For example: “Will you ever finish this job ?!”, “Maybe we have a snack before bedtime?”.
- Question-rhetorical - may be affirmative or negative and do not require an answer, as it is already in the question itself. Used only as a means of expression of speech. For example: “Who does not want to get to Paris at the height of spring ?!”, “How can I not love you, native land ?!”.
The means of achieving the goal of interrogative sentences are special intonation in oral speech, a question mark on a letter, as well as interrogative words (what, how, why, etc.), particles (unless, really) and a certain word order: (“Adults go to work? ”,“ Who goes to work? ”,“ Where do adults go? ”).
Types of proposals for the purpose of the statementhave another, third, type - incentive. These are sentences that contain a certain will of the phrase. Their main task is to induce the addressee to some action, and the impulse can be expressed in different forms.
- Pleas: "I beg, let me look at my son at least once !!!"
- Requests: "Please, give me a pencil."
- Order: "Shut up immediately!".
- Suggestions: “Get well soon, be kind.”
The motivation for action in sentences of this type is expressed with the help of a special (stimulating) intonation, the imperative form of predicates and some particles of the type “let it be,” “come on,” “well,” etc.
Thus, what are the proposals for the purpose of statements, it is now clear. As for the intonation coloring, the vast majority of them are non-exclamatory. They are pronounced calmly, without emotional strain and special feeling. Most often they represent a narrative message or a question, less often - a motivation.
Examples: “From hot tea, warmth spread all over my body”, “Where did this boy come to us from?”, “Please, take my mother's hand”.
Sentences pronounced in a special tone and with a special feeling are called exclamations. Most often, such intonation requires phrases that contain motivation, but any other kind can have an exclamation color.
Suggestions for the purpose of the statement and for intonation are:
- Narrative exclamation: "Summer has come - how great!".
- Interrogative exclamations: "Do you never accept the truth ?!"
- Motivational exclamations: “Give me my toy immediately!”.
Highlighting in writing
From what sentences on the purpose of the statement and intonation are, the punctuation marks in them depend.
- The end of a non-exclamatory declarative sentence is indicated by a period: “And this is how this strange story ended.”
- A non-exclamational interrogative sentence ends with a question mark: “Has the father already left?”.
- The non-exclamatory incentive sentence also has a point at the end: “Throw this dirty business”.
- At the end of a narrative, incentive or interrogative sentence with an exclamatory intonation, the corresponding (exclamatory) sign is put (in the latter case, after the interrogative one). If emotions are particularly tense, then there may be three such signs. “And he went back home!”, “Stupid, get away from the edge!”, “Will you let me go ?!”, “Watch out !!!”.
- If there is a shade of incompleteness at the end of any type of sentences, there may be a three-dot. For example: "Sadness ...", "Well, you're back, and then? ..", "Run, run soon! ..".
According to the purpose of saying sentences are, as we found out, of three kinds. Russian language is rich and diverse. This article provides information about what suggestions on the purpose of speech and intonation are found in Russian. To study and assimilate it necessarily everyone who wants to speak and write correctly.