Who discovered Eurasia? From antiquity to the present day
The study of the continents of the Earth is a process that began thousands of years before our era. It is noteworthy that it is still ongoing, because some hard-to-reach places are still not explored by geographers. Today we will find out who discovered Eurasia.
Europe and Asia
Eurasia is the largest continent of our planet. Its area is 54.3 million km² (or 36% of land). Most of the world's population lives here - 76%. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere, but part of the islands that belong to the mainland are located in the Southern.
The mainland consists of two parts - Europe and Asia. The border between them is the Russian Ural River. Today this division causes numerous disputes, but it has developed historically. The huge continent is a solid land, not divided by seas and oceans.
Eurasia is a unique continent. Numerous ancient cultures of China, India, Greece, Babylon, and the Arab East were born here.And while studying the geography of the continent, the question inevitably arises of who discovered Eurasia. Alas, there is no exact answer to it, because it was gradually investigated by many seafarers.
First people on the continent
It is believed that the first people appeared in Africa. Scientists really have reason to believe so. About 70,000 years ago, the first inhabitants of Africa went on a journey. After 25,000 years, they settled in the Arabian Peninsula. At the same time numerous groups were separated from the nomads and settled in the depths of the continent. They became the ones who discovered Eurasia.
The ancients who inhabited Europe and Asia (from the Danube in modern Mongolia) led a predominantly nomadic or semi-nomadic way of life. In these territories, many peoples of the Indo-European family were formed. There is a version that some tribes, in particular Shigir, who lived on the territory of Russia, were the ancestors of the Hyperboreans.
Eurasia was gradually discovered by its inhabitants. For example, the Mediterranean coast was discovered by the Phoenicians (they are the ancestors of modern Jews). Phoenicians are rightfully considered the best navigators of antiquity.
The ancient Greeks continued their study of Europe.They not only did research on new territories, but also wrote about them. Herodotus, who lived in the 5th century BC. e., visited Asia Minor and Persia, and also described in detail the manners and customs of the peoples with whom he met during the trip.
The Greeks made a significant contribution to geography. They mastered the Asian coast of the Aegean Sea, the territory of modern Italy, Sicily. Greek cities were built there with a specialized form of economic development. The Greeks also mastered the south of France and the African coast. Settling the northern coast of the Aegean Sea, Greek seafarers settled on the Black Sea coast. Led an active trade in fish and grain.
The next stage of geographical discoveries belongs to the Romans. General Scipio discovered the Pyrenees. And the famous Roman emperor Caesar marched with his troops on the territory of many modern countries - Britain, France, and Germany. At this time, the Rhine and Danube rivers were discovered.
In the 6th and 7th centuries AD, Irish monks were the most skillful navigators. During their travels they visited Iceland and a number of islands - the Hebrides, Farrers, and Orkneys.
The Arabs were no less excellent navigators. Starting from the 7th century, they played an important role in geographical discoveries. The Arabs not only explored the Arabian Peninsula, India, Iran, Indonesia, Central and Central Asia, but also made maps of these territories.
So who discovered Eurasia? It was a whole group of researchers who lived at different times. They opened up some shores of the mainland, then others. But the greatest discovery was that all these particles belong to the same continent.
Famous researchers and their discoveries
Among the famous travelers (those who discovered Eurasia) are distinguished:
1. Marco Polo - the famous Portuguese navigator, who was distinguished by a phenomenal memory. He sailed to the southern shores of Asia, the smallest details of which he described in his "Book of Marco Polo."
2. Vasco de Gama - another famous explorer who first visited India.
3. Petr Petrovich Semenov-Tian-Shansky laid the foundation for numerous expeditions to Central and Central Asia.
4. Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky is one of the famous Russian researchers who studied the Far East and wrote about it in his book “Travels in the Ussuri region”.
5. Grigory Nikolaevich Potanin visited Mongolia and Tibet.The traveler mainly used the roads previously unknown to Europeans to get to these countries.
6. Vladimir Atlasov investigated Kamchatka. A few centuries later, its nature was described in detail by Krasheninnikov.
7. Evgeny Smurgis became another person who discovered the coastal zone of Eurasia. In 1990, opened the most northern point of the continent - Cape Chelyuskin.
Of course, this is not the whole list of great explorers of Eurasia. Those who discovered Eurasia again and again are much more. Often, research was carried out by entire groups of geographers. The names of the participants in many groups remain unknown.
One of those who discovered the mainland of Eurasia, even though part of it, is Vitus Bering, a Dane who lived in Russia and served in the Russian port. In 1704, under Peter I, he joined the navy as captain-commander.
Ivan Ivanovich (as the sailor was called in Russia) was ordered to find out whether Asia is connected to America or there is a strait between them. Today this strait is called Berengov. In fact, Bering was not the discoverer of the strait. They became the navigator Semen Dezhnev. He visited the Bering Strait as early as 1648, but his report on the discovered strait was found in the archives much later.
That is why it is impossible to say who was the first to discover Eurasia. Above the study of this continent worked whole groups of travelers.
Today it seems to us that we know everything about our world. But on Earth, there are many hard-to-reach, unexplored territories - areas of Tibet and Arabia, the mountains of the Hindu Kush and Karakorum, as well as Indochina and the islands of Indonesia.